MENINGOENCEPHALITIS IN BIHAR: EPIDEMIOLOGY TRENDS AND DIFFERENT TYPES.

Authors

  • Anwar Alam Associate Professor, Department of Neurology, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
  • Z. R. Azad  Professor, Department of Neurology, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
  • Baidyanath Kumar  Assistant Professor, Department of Neurology, Nalanda Medical College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.51168/sjhrafrica.v5i3.1123

Keywords:

Acute Meningitis and Encephalitis, Central Nervous System infection, Incidence Rate, Causative Pathogens, Clinical Manifestations

Abstract

Background:

Acute meningitis and encephalitis (AME) pose a significant public health concern due to its association with central nervous system (CNS) infection. Understanding the incidence rate, seasonality, and causative pathogens of AME is essential for effective management and prevention strategies.

Methods:

In the prospective observational study, a total of 120 participants presenting with symptoms suggestive of CNS infection were enrolled. Study encompassed acute onset symptoms accompanied by fever, headache, vomiting, and meningeal signs or changes in mental status. Data collection included demographic, clinical, and vaccine history, along with biochemistry test results. Samples were collected for further testing, and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0.

Result:

The study involved 120 participants, aged 35 years (±15 years) on average, with an equal gender split. Viral etiologies predominated (66.7%), notably encephalitis virus in 50% of cases, while bacterial pathogens comprised 33.3%, mainly Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Clinical signs included fever (90%), headache (80%), vomiting (70%), altered mental status (60%), and meningeal signs (30%). Vaccine history showed 80% lacking recent encephalitis vaccination and 60% with data on Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Biochemical analysis revealed 70% with elevated CRP and 60% with abnormal WBC counts. Tuberculous Meningitis was most common (35%), followed by Purulent Meningitis (25%) and other viral etiologies.

Conclusion:

The study provides valuable insights into the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of AME, highlighting the importance of comprehensive surveillance and diagnostic strategies. Early detection and targeted interventions are essential for mitigating the burden of AME and improving patient outcomes.

Recommendations:

Enhanced vaccination coverage, especially against encephalitis and bacterial pathogens, coupled with rigorous surveillance and prompt diagnosis, are recommended to effectively manage AME outbreaks and reduce associated morbidity and mortality.

Published

2024-03-31

How to Cite

Alam, A. ., Z. R. Azad, & Kumar, B. . (2024). MENINGOENCEPHALITIS IN BIHAR: EPIDEMIOLOGY TRENDS AND DIFFERENT TYPES. Student’s Journal of Health Research Africa, 5(3). https://doi.org/10.51168/sjhrafrica.v5i3.1123

Issue

Section

Section of General Medicine Research