Student's Journal of Health Research Africa https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html <p>Student’s Journal of Health Research Africa (SJHR-Africa) is an open-access journal that includes all branches of Medicine and health research to narrow the knowledge gap in Africa, (<strong>ISSN 2709-9997). </strong> The journal is peer-reviewed and promotes research on the African continent by accepting original research ideas from African students who are doing research.</p> <p>We are the journal for African students that believes in sharing information for free. Publishing in a total of 39 sections, SJHR-Africa is here to meet the needs of an African student. We believe that when we integrate Knowledge from different academic disciplines, Africa will be a complete ecosystem with adequate scholarly materials to bridge the knowledge gap.</p> <p>As the world becomes more integrated, our scope extends to biological sciences, Vocational studies that have an impact on health such as Agriculture. Informational technology, Environmental science, Business studies, and planning have also shown to influence Health. The journal brings together individual specialties from different fields into a dynamic academic mix. We intended to enhance communication among health system researchers and administrators, policy and decision-makers, legislators, practitioners, educators, students, and other types of professionals in the research that might have an effect on the healthcare delivery systems.</p> <p> </p> Student's Journal of Health Research en-US Student's Journal of Health Research Africa 2709-9997 Relevancy of Online Learning in Training Learners in Five UBTEB Centres in Uganda during Covid-19 Pandemic; An Online Comparative Participatory Institute Based Research Appraisal Using Semi-Structured Questionnaire. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/257 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>This research surveyed the relevancy of online learning in training learners, it was conducted in five UBTEB centers in the rural and urban learning environments of Team University, Uganda Wildlife Conservation Institute in Kasese, Yole Polytechnic Institute-ARUA, YMCA Comprehensive Institute, and BUGEMA University Vocational school. It centered on assessing students’ acceptability of online learning, identifying the instructional tool used during online learning, the affordability of online learning by the institutions, and identifying challenges being faced during online learning. </p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>It was an online survey in which an electronic questionnaire was sent to participants who met the inclusion requirements.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Most institutions used the zoom to deliver online learning with 107/167 participants saying that they used to zoom in delivering online learning, next was teleconferencing followed by Google meet. WhatsApp though the least used, was the most readily available means with little or no technical challenges and was widely used by students. Almost all participants afforded online teaching, with exception of Yole TI, some tutors in Team (01), UWLI (03), Yole (02), and Bugema (01) said that online teaching was not affordable. Having access to mentoring, professional-pedagogical training, isolation from other students, campus life, and controlling the curriculum and academic honesty, students complain about the technical complications, internet connection, lack of time in preparing to handle each student’s need, lack of institutional support, lack of pedagogical training in the transition to online teaching, lack of infrastructures of ICT, lack or poor of Wi-Fi, Economic implications and Workload of assignments to Tutors and Learners were some of the challenges that were identified</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong></p> <p>Generally, online learning received resistance at first but later every institution embraced it. </p> <p><strong>Recommendations: </strong></p> <p>For sustainable implementation, Online learning should be incorporated into the learning curricula, first with higher institutions and then later at the Advanced level.</p> <p> </p> Twalibu Nzanzu Chareles Twesigye K. JohnBosco Binenwa SantaMaria Asio Copyright (c) 2022 Twalibu Nzanzu, Chareles Twesigye K., JohnBosco Binenwa, SantaMaria Asio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 8 8 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.257 Teacher Effectiveness and Academic Performance of Physics in Secondary Schools in Entebbe Municipality. A Cross-Sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/268 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The study was about teacher effectiveness and students’ academic performance focusing on Physics in Secondary Schools in Entebbe Municipality. The study was guided by the following objectives; to determine how teacher’s mastery of content and ability to teach affect students’ performance in physics in Secondary Schools in Entebbe Municipality, to determine the performance of students in physics in Entebbe municipality, and to find out if there is a significant relationship between teacher’s effectiveness (teacher’s mastery &amp;amp; ability to teach) and performance in physics in Entebbe municipality.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A survey research design with quantitative and qualitative research approaches was used, and the data was collected using a questionnaire and interview guide from 100 respondents.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The results for objective one indicate a moderate grand mean of 3.40 and a standard deviation of 1.064. The results from objective two show that with a low grand mean of 2.610 and a standard deviation of 0.938. Generally, the findings in objective three on the relationship between Teacher effectiveness and Academic performance of physics revealed that with N=100, P value=0.203 and Sig. 0.005.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>There is no significant positive relationship between a teacher’s effectiveness and the academic performance of students in physics.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>The school administration should ensure that the more senior teachers can help the junior ones to learn how to best teach physics, and adopt the use of ICT tools and digital game-based learning to make physics learning, there is a need to employ the techniques of differentiating between students to help them become better performers as individuals and there is need to adopt the use of the flipped classroom model, encourage cooperative learning, effective communication among the teachers and with students, build rapport with the parents/caregivers.</p> Muzamiru Muyodi Willy Kamya Copyright (c) 2022 Muzamiru Muyodi , Willy Kamya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 19 19 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.268 Water Quality in Selected Water Springs in Banda, Kampala-Uganda https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/249 <p><strong>Background </strong></p> <p>Groundwater is the main source of water for drinking and other domestic use for the people of Banda. The main objective was to assess water quality in selected springs in Banda in the Kampala district. The specific objectives were to determine the pH, electroconductivity, alkalinity, turbidity, total dissolved solids, mineral, and heavy metal content of the water samples as well as their fecal coliform counts. </p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>Two samples were collected from each spring at an interval of one week. Electroconductivity and pH measurements were done on-site using a conductivity meter and a digital pH meter respectively. Alkalinity and chlorine content was determined by titration, total dissolved solids by the gravimetric method, and turbidity by use of a turbidity meter while Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy was used for both mineral and heavy metal analysis. Fecal coliforms were enumerated using the membrane filtration method. Minerals assessed were calcium, potassium, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium while lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic were the heavy metals of interest.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Results showed the following concentration ranges: pH (4.71-6.26), electro conductivity (218.80-621.00 µS/cm), alkalinity (10.35-60.40 mg/L), total dissolved solids (111.90-323.20 mg/L), turbidity (2-3 FTU), Sodium (16.11-34.45mg/L), Chlorine (17.73-49.25 mg/L), Calcium (4.81-20.05 mg/L), Magnesium (2.50-4.87 mg/L), Potassium (4.05-11.85 mg/L) and Lead (0.17-0.24 mg/L), Copper (1.69-2.66 mg/L), Cadmium (0.02-0.08 mg/L), Arsenic (0.005-0.01 mg/L). Fecal coliforms ranged between 1150 and 2700 colony-forming units/100ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>From analyses carried out, spring water from Banda is chemically and microbiologically unsuitable for drinking-water purposes except after some form of treatment.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>National Water and Sewerage Cooperation should take urgent action by carrying out more research on all water springs in this area.</p> <p>Residents of this area should be encouraged to use tap water than spring water until further analyses are carried out.</p> <p> </p> Twalibu Nzanzu Joshua Barasa Sarah Kiwanuka Nanyonga JeanBosco Binenwa Copyright (c) 2022 Twalibu Nzanzu, Joshua Barasa, Sarah Kiwanuka Nanyonga, JeanBosco Binenwa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.249 Designing of an Electric Light Sensor Circuit using Light Dependent Resistor for Auto Lighting Systems at Home. An experimental design https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/240 <p><strong>Background :</strong></p> <p>Due to the increasing wastage of electricity resulting from failure to switch off bulbs during day time, this research aimed at designing an electric light sensor circuit using a light-dependent resistor that helps to switch on and off lights at night and during the day respectively. The specific objectives was to generate an electric light sensor circuit using a light-dependent resistor and to determine the performance of an electric light sensor circuit in terms of resistance due to light exposure.</p> <p> <strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The research design was experimental; an electric light sensor circuit was designed and tested for its effectiveness. It was designed using resistors, a BC547 transistor, an LDR (Light dependent resistor), an led (bulb), and two resistors. Testing for the effectiveness of the electric light sensor was carried out based on Increasing the voltage on the DC power supply (from 2volts to 9volts) while reading the respective values of the resistance of the electric light sensor circuit using the multimeter and at the same time covering an LDR to create darkness on it. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>A detailed analysis concerning the performance of the Electric light sensor system has been performed and presented. The device performed well using a light-dependent resistor as the light sensor.<strong> </strong>It was proven that the increase in the intensity of light falling on the light-dependent resistor as a light sensor makes the bulb (led) go off. This meant that during the day when the intensity of light was very high, the bulb (led) was off.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p> A detailed analysis concerning the performance of the Electric light sensor system has been performed and presented. The device performed well using a light-dependent resistor as the light sensor.</p> <p> <strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>The system should next time be operated using the photocell instead of the LDR to improve its effectiveness.</p> Lawrance Ngonzi Willy Kamya Copyright (c) 2022 Lawrance Ngonzi , Willy Kamya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 12 12 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.240 Design and Implementation of a Bluetooth-Based Rover Prototype for Short Range Extraterrestrial Explorations. An Exploratory Study https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/239 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Extraterrestrial exploration is an integral part of scientific research, some unnavigable or hard-to-reach places such as active volcanoes, bottoms of water bodies, radioactive sites and experimental chambers, mountain caves, or even other planets may contain very valuable data about our universe or some scientific phenomena. This project attempted to solve some of these accessibility problems by designing and implementing a rover that could be used to explore such environments without putting human life at stake. </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The project adopts a very cost-effective approach, firstly, Arduino boards and Atmega microcontrollers are used for the design of control systems, and Bluetooth is used for remote communication. Performance results showed that the Bluetooth technology is suitable for use in a clean environment with fewer obstacles, the HC-05 Bluetooth was able to receive and transmit data up to 8 meters in a clear environment and up to 2.5 meters through walls.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Furthermore, the rover was 86.7% accurate in detecting obstacles along its way using ultrasonic sound sensors. The testing results are in the range of agreement with those of similar projects such as the obstacle avoidance robotic car by Bilkis, Faiza, Susmita &amp; Muhammad (2017). </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The results of the study showed that building exploration robots or rovers can be built using cost-effective contemporary technology that is accessible to most developers, implementation of an obstacle is possible with Ultrasonic sensors and short to midrange communication and control is possible via Bluetooth.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong>However, future researchers may investigate the use of renewable energy in powering the rovers and improving the transmission quality of Bluetooth.</p> Denis Byakatonda Willy Kamya Copyright (c) 2022 Willy Kamya, Byakatonda Denis https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.239 Barriers that affect the use of birth control options among women of reproductive age in Bwaise slum. A cross-sectional study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/229 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Ugandan women, on average, give birth to nearly two more children than they want, one of the highest levels of excess fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. More than half of pregnancies in Uganda are unintended, and almost a third of these end up in abortions. The purpose of the study was to assess the barriers that affect birth control use among women of reproductive age in the Bwaise slum.</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study design and systematic random sampling were used to reach 384 study participants. Data were collected using questionnaires through direct interviews. The Chi-square test was used to establish the hypothesis, the association between independent variables and the dependent variable was performed, and a p-value &lt; 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant at 95% CI.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Knowledge is universal (99.7 %). Each woman was aware of at least 2.7 birth control options on average, with 91.4% knowing at least one option and 86 % knowing at least one advantage of using birth control<strong>. </strong>About 66.4% of participants have ever used a birth control option, and at the moment of the survey, only 37.2% reported using a birth control option. Association between the use of birth control and knowledge about a facility with birth control services, distance to the facility, lack of money, previous experience of side effects, and religious discouragement were noted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Women of childbearing age in the Bwaise slums used contraceptives below the national target of 50% with a high dropout rate. Side effects, lack of money, lack of knowledge of a facility, distance to the facility, and religious discouragements impact the use of birth control in the Bwaise slum.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>Active outreaches to relay comprehensive information about birth control options, involving women of childbearing age, and religious and cultural leaders in the Bwaise slum are needed.</p> Rodrigue Muderhwa Bacigale Copyright (c) 2022 Rodrigue Muderhwa Bacigale https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.229 Clinical Presentation and Bacteriology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers at Mulago Hospital: A Prospective Case Series Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/267 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Diabetic foot ulcer is a common cause of mortality among patients admitted to Mulago hospital. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease are the major risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration and the severity of these two conditions may determine treatment options and ulcer outcomes.</p> <p><strong>General objective: </strong></p> <p>The study assessed the clinical presentation of foot ulcers in diabetic patients and identified the common bacterial isolates from diabetic foot ulcers and their susceptibility patterns.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:</p> <p>This was a prospective study involving 60 consecutive patients with diabetic foot ulcers admitted to the endocrinology unit at Mulago hospital between July and December 2010. Patients were recruited after the provision of written informed consent. Deep tissue swabs from the ulcers were then taken at debridement for both aerobic and anaerobic cultures and susceptibility tests using standard microbiological methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Of the 60 patients, 57% had neuroischemic foot ulcers, 18% had neuropathic ulcers, 18% had ischemic ulcers and 7% had unclassified ulcers. 98.3% of the samples grew 93 aerobic bacteria and no anaerobe was isolated. Polymicrobial infection occurred in 41% of samples of which 10% had mixed growth. 80.6% of the isolates were Gram-negative aerobes, mainly E.coli Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and Proteus while eighteen (19.4%) were Gram-positive, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The prevalence of MuMultidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) was 84% and Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 60% while Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) was 43.5%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>Diabetic foot ulcers were mostly neuroischemic with moderate neuropathy severity. Infection was mostly due to aerobic Gram-negative organisms with a high prevalence of MDRO, ESBL, and MRSA. Most isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>Deep tissue culture and sensitivity tests should be done to make appropriate antibiotic choices for diabetic patients with foot ulcers.</p> Aldo Justin Pario Frederick Nelson Nakwagala Moses Kamya David Livingstone Ejalu Copyright (c) 2022 Aldo Justin Pario, Frederick Nelson Nakwagala , Moses Kamya , David Livingstone Ejalu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 14 14 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.267 Prevalence and Factors associated with Peripheral Neuropathies among Patients with Diabetes attending Jinja Regional Referral Hospital: A Retrospective open cohort study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/259 <p><strong>Aim:</strong></p> <p>To determine the prevalence and factors associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients of Jinja Regional Referral Hospital<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A retrospective open cohort study was conducted among 1000 diagnosed diabetic patients ofJRRH. Data on the socio-demographics, age, duration of symptoms, smoking, alcohol intake, HIV status, BMI, cholesterol levels, history of kidney disease, heart or brain problems, and footing problems were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A p-value of ˂0.05 was considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The study revealed that the mean age of developing DPN was 51.1.674 (67.4%) of the patients obtained from the register were females and 324 (32.4%) were male.760 (76%) of the patients obtained from the register were of average BMI of 24 and 160 (16%) had a BMI of more than 25.540(54%) of the patients developed diabetic neuropathy while 460(46%) of the patients did not develop DNP. The factors associated with DPN were brain or heart problems X2=22.97, Eye problems X2=20.934, P=0.001, Kidney problems X2=22.97, P=0.001, High cholesterol X2=19.153, P=0.001, Alcohol intake X2= 35.224, P=0.001 and Adequate physical activity X2=1.349, P=0.001.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The Prevalence of DPN was high (54%) and occurs in 1 in every 6 DM patients in Jinja Regional Referral Hospital among patients with diabetes.</p> <p>The factors associated with diabetic neuropathy among diabetic patients are; age, BMI, physical activities, sex, and underlying conditions like brain or heart problems, kidney problems, eye problems, and high cholesterol levels.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Early diagnosis of DM with regular sugar monitoring would play a significant role in identifying these problems.</p> Violet Alimwenda Copyright (c) 2022 Violet Alimwenda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 14 14 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.259 Prevalence of Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women in Fishing Communities of Entebbe Municipality, Wakiso District. A Cross-sectional study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/291 <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>Cervical cancer disease in Uganda remains the leading causes of deaths among cancer patients, responsible for about 4,607 deaths annually. Despite the numerous modern treatment options and prevention strategies, cervical cancer screening prevalence remains undefined especially in the fishing communities and yet women living in fishing communities are core interest groups for cervical cancer due to their relatively higher risk of HIV and HPV infections.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study employing a quantitative approach was performed, purposive sampling following a household survey was conducted. Structured interviews and questionnaires were administered to collect data from June 2021 to August 2021. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 25 using the log-binomial model.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>prevalence of cervical cancer screening among women in fishing communities of Entebbe municipality, Wakiso district remains as low as 23.2%, mainly unsatisfactory among the married women (aPR = 0.232 [0.13 - 0.43], p &lt; 0.001) and, Catholics (aPR = 0.050 [0.01 - 0.18], p &lt; 0.001). At the same time, higher cervical cancer screening prevalence was observed among employed women (aPR= 2.81 [1.48 - 5.33], p = 0.002), those who had prior recommendation from healthcare workers (aPR = 1.25 [0.09 - 0.65], p = 0.004), and those who perceived that cervical cancer is a curse from God (cPR = 2.800 [CI = 1.798 - 4.36], P = 0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p> Cervical cancer screening is low among women in fishing communities of Entebbe municipality; only 2 in every 10 women have ever been screened for cervical cancer in their lifetime, while less than 1 in 10 had to follow-up of screening.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>Behavior change communication preferably using the intrapersonal channel on issues related to cervical cancer screening should be adopted in the fishing communities urgently if we are to elevate the uptake of this secondary prevention measure for cervical cancer.</p> Emily Keneema Mathias Lwenge Zaitune Nanyunja Barbara Kawoozo Ampeire Immaculate Ali Ssetaala Juliet Mpendo Brenda Okech Daniel Okodan Copyright (c) 2022 Emily Keneema , Mathias Lwenge , Zaitune Nanyunja, Barbara Kawoozo, Ampeire Immaculate, Ali Ssetaala, Juliet Mpendo, Brenda Okech, Daniel Okodan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.291 Factors associated with Dispensing Practices in Retail Pharmacies in Kampala District. A Cross-Sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/260 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>There is a growing global problem of inappropriate dispensing practices in retail pharmacies for drugs including antibiotics and even controlled drugs. Therefore a study was carried out to assess the factors associated with dispensing practices of drugs in retail Pharmacies in Kampala district.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study design was cross sectional analytical study and a sample of 385 respondents was selected using a simple random sampling technique and a questionnaire was used to collect data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The study found out that majority (52.9%) of the pharmacies had inappropriate dispensing practices of drugs. The study also showed that majority (60.4%) of the retail pharmacies never had designated areas in their facilities for counseling of patients.</p> <p>The study also showed that about 30% of pharmacies which had a designated area for counseling of patients practiced appropriate dispensing practices of drugs as compared to those that never had designated areas for counseling. Majority (41.7%) of the dispensers in the retail pharmacies were Nurses and 53.4% of the dispensers had not participated in an in-service training program on dispensing medicine. The nature of the professional and frequency of previous in-service training program determined the dispensing outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The study revealed that the inappropriate dispensing practices in pharmacies were attributed to; profession, experience of dispensing, having attended dispensing training and the frequency of attendance of training, having designated areas for counseling and presence of structures for reporting patient complaints.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong>:</p> <p> In order to improve on the appropriateness of dispensing practices in retail pharmacies, Regular in service training by supervising pharmacists should be enhanced. Pharmacies should designate counselling areas for patients and regulatory agencies, mainly NDA should increase supervision visits to pharmacies and ensure that dispensing guidelines are adhered to by all pharmacies.</p> Joseph Nyombi Copyright (c) 2022 Joseph Nyombi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.260 The Factors influencing the prevalence of anaemia among Pregnant Women in western Uganda. A cross-sectional study at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/288 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Anaemia is a global health problem affecting 1.62 billion people where 41.8% (56 million people) of the general population are pregnant women. It’s more prevalent among pregnant women because during pregnancy, iron requirements increase much more significantly as compared to non-pregnant women. The aim of conducting this study was to determine the factors influencing the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital (KRRH) in Kabale district.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers. Data was collected using a systematic random sampling technique. Blood samples were collected from 200 pregnant women and analyzed using a CBC analyzer sysmex Xs1000 to determine the Haemoglobin concentration. Interviews were conducted with mothers to determine factors influencing the prevalence of anaemia.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Findings showed that the general prevalence of anaemia was 27% whereby 31% were mildly anaemic, 50% were moderately anaemic and 19% were severely anaemic. Concerning the socio-economic factors influencing the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women, it was found out that the prevalence of anaemia was higher among participants who were peasants, rural dwellers, those having low education and low monthly income. The level of awareness about anaemia among pregnant women was 68% whereby the majority (25.5%) had heard it from ANC clinic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>The overall prevalence of anaemia (27%) among pregnant women attending antenatal care services at Kabale Regional Referral Hospital in Kabale district was found to be a moderate health problem in the area of study.</p> Blendar Ainebyoona Henry Ssekyanzi Mustafa Ssaka Nafutari Muhumuza Paul Bwenje David Livingstone Ejalu Copyright (c) 2022 Blendar Ainebyoona , Ssekyanzi Henry, Ssaka Mustafa, Nafutari Muhumuza, Paul Bwenje, David Livingstone Ejalu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.288 Ultrasound features of Cytotoxic venomous snake bite and implications for surgical management – A systematic review https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/258 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Snake bite is an important, yet often neglected health problem in many regions of the world. Cytotoxic venomous snake bites (VSB) have the potential to induce significant tissue injury, resulting in compartment syndrome. This research sought to provide a summary of ultrasound features of VSB, with the aim of improving management in afflicted patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong></p> <p>A systematic review of 2 electronic medical literature databases was performed. Pre-defined eligibility criteria were used to identify relevant published case series (sample size 10 or more) which reported on ultrasound features of VSB. Screening of the reference lists of eligible manuscripts was also performed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Two case series reporting on ultrasound studies of cytotoxic VSB were included in this review. One study was from the United States and the other study was from South Africa. Children under 12 years comprised a large proportion of VSB victims (92.3% in the American study and 33.3% in the South African study). The majority of VSB victims were male (76.9% in the American study and 57.1% in the South African study). Snake species involved were Crotaline/rattlesnakes (American study) and adders or cobras (South African study). In both studies, VSBs were located on the upper limbs. The most common ultrasound finding in both studies was subcutaneous oedema. The deep muscular appears to be minimally affected in cytotoxic VSB.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong>Ultrasound features of cytotoxic envenomation were consistent between studies. Ultrasonography provides useful information which can be used to supplement the information obtained during the external clinical examination of cytotoxic VSB and can be used to identify patients with a risk of compartment syndrome who might require surgery.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>Ultrasonography should be performed as one of the primary investigations when patients present with VSB.</p> Karundat Bhola Samson Mashele Yoshan Moodley Copyright (c) 2022 Karundat Bhola, Samson Mashele, Yoshan Moodley https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 8 8 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.258 Reasons Influencing PrEP continuity among Key and Priority Populations in Tabora region, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/285 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>In Tabora, PrEP continuity 6 months after among newly enrolled among Key and Priority Population (KPP) is low at 47%. However, information on reasons influencing to PrEP continuity in KPP in Tabora is limited. We report study findings from nine (9) health facilities (HFs) in the Tabora region.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> </p> <p>This was a cross-sectional survey, deployed both quantitative and qualitative methods. 425 current or previous PrEP beneficiaries started PrEP between July 2020 to January 2021 were administered with a structured questionnaire, whereby 157 participants were purposively selected for 18 focused group discussions (FGDs). Recruitment of study participants carried between February to April 2022.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>A total of 425 KPPs, aged 15-70 years with average 30 years, the majority 288(58%) were FSWs, the proportion of interruption was 25(20.5%). Reported reasons for PrEP interruptions, (57%) were due to drug side effects and the least was migration (3%). There was an association between interruptions and clients’ age (P&lt;0.05), area of service offered (P=0.010.) and being knowledgeable about PrEP: (P&lt;0.05). There is significant relationship between awareness and PrEP interruptions, though in proportions of those aware and had interruptions was at 33%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Drugs side effects, misconception, stigma, pill burden and migration were cited among influencing reasons for PrEP interruptions.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations: </strong></p> <p>Interventional study recommended to explore on the reasons cited for PrEP discontinuity in reaching PrEP goals in prevention services.</p> Adam Mrisho Honoratha Rutatinisibwa George Msalale Ramadhani Shemtandulo Benson Mturi Steven Ambonisye AbelaAbele Rumisha Mohamed Ayoub Charles Shirima Wilhellmuss Mauka Shallon Atuhaire Evaline Maziku Anath Rwebembera Goodluck Lyatuu David Sando Copyright (c) 2022 Adam Mrisho, Dr Honoratha Rutatinisibwa, Dr George Msalale, Mr Ramadhani Shemtandulo, Mr Benson Mturi, Mr Steven Ambonisye, Dr AbelaAbele Rumisha, Dr Mohamed Ayoub, Dr Charles Shirima, Dr Wilhellmuss Mauka, Dr Shallon Atuhaire, Evaline Maziku, Dr Anath Rwebembera, Dr Goodluck Lyatuu, Dr David Sando https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.285 Willingness and readiness to use digital technologies in midwifery practice among midwives at tertiary health facilities in Uganda. A qualitative and phenomenological Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/255 <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Background:</span></strong><span style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Digital technologies being used to promote maternal health and support service providers have increased dramatically during the last 20 years. The internet, mobile technologies such as mobile software programs or apps, wearables, Texting, social networking, telecare, and remote monitoring equipment are all examples of digital forms of support. Digital technologies for health have emerged as a prominent field of practice for utilizing both standard and novel kinds of applications of information and communication technology to solve upcoming health complications, particularly in the field of midwifery. The study objective was to explore the willingness and readiness to use digital technologies in midwifery practice among midwives at tertiary health facilities in the Buikwe district in Uganda. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Using the qualitative and phenomenological design, a purposive sampling technique was employed to select 15 interviewees from Kawolo and St. Charles Lwanga Hospitals. Data collection was by use of an interview guide, and data analysis involved Thematic content analysis. The results showed nearly all of the midwives were ready to use digital technology. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Results:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Altogether, six thematic areas emerged as considerations when getting ready to use digital technologies: improved patient care, communication, training and education, information sharing, age, and attitudes toward digital technology. The drawbacks included; high costs of devices and data, attitude, and unavailability of digital technologies. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion</span></strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">: </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Majority of the midwives are willing and ready to use digital technologies. Therefore, they need to be encouraged and facilitated accordingly since technology integration into midwifery practice can improve the overall health of mothers and their babies.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendation</span></strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">s: </span></p> <p style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">This study recommends that; The government should provide more digital technologies in hospitals, subsidize mobile data costs and the market price of smartphones, Internet access is promised in major departments, and free internet access for research purposes will be provided.</span></p> Marion Asaba Omolara Tella Ijeoma Ihekwaba Copyright (c) 2022 Marion Asaba , Omolara Tella, Ijeoma Ihekwaba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 15 15 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.255 Individual-related factors influencing the striking gender inequality in the nursing profession. A cross sectional study among nurses and student nurses from selected Hospitals and Nurses Training Institutions in the Northern Cities of Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/301 <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>The striking level of gender inequality (GI) in the nursing profession (NP), is partially influenced by some individual related factors. The 26.4% male, mostly suffers psychological abuse and discrimination for being academic failures but some nurses appreciates them. It’s confirmed that all nurses are academically qualified though graduate nurses are only 6% and Muslims, 3.7%. 9.1% of respondents revealed that patients/attendants mistreatment by some nurses triggered their nursing choice. The main study objectives was to established the factors influencing GI in the NP among nurses and student nurses from the selected hospital and nurses training institution in the Northern Cities of Uganda. </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> </p> <p>A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data. Trained research assistants used a pretested structured English questionnaire to obtain raw data which were single-entered and analyzed using statistical software version 26. Frequency tables and graphs were used to describe the study variables. Univaraite and bivariate analysis methods were used to identify factors associated with GI. Variables with P-value of &lt;0.05 with 95% confidence interval were used to declare statistical significance. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>383 interviewed participants generated 95.6% responses. Perpetuator of gender discrimination in the NP are mainly patients/attendants and nurses/students. 35.5% of the respondents believed that male nurses are using nursing as a stepping stone to other medical courses. Gender, education level, religious affiliation, training level, the experience of discrimination, and recommended gender for NP were the individual-related factors that were significantly associated with GI in the NP</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </p> <p>Gender inequality in the NP is greatly influenced by individual-related factors despite other factors. The stigmatised male nurses avoid the professional uniform to probably meet the public expectation of them being doctors.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>Swift multidisciplinary action is needed for a comprehensive and collaborative mindset change of the public about NP.</p> Lilly Grace Lalam Florence Nabushawo Oketcho Copyright (c) 2022 Lilly Grace Lalam, Florence Nabushawo Oketcho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.301 Prevalence of Enterococci Infection in Blood Cultures Based on Age Group at Makerere University Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. A Cross-Sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/279 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Aminoglycoside resistance has been of great concern since it eliminates the synergy of aminoglycosides with beta-lactam antibiotics, which is the therapy of choice for most enterococcal infections and can limit the therapeutic options for clinicians. Although enterococci are not virulent as other gram-positive bacteria, they are multidrug-resistant which restricts the clinician’s options for treatment of the enterococcal infections. The objective of this study is to determine the Prevalence of Enterococci Infection in Blood Cultures Based on Age Group at Makerere University Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study on the evaluation of high-level aminoglycoside resistance of enterococcal isolates in blood culture at MUCML between January 2017 and December 2020. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The prevalence of enterococcal species was 6.07%, from these 66.67% were found to be among children between 0 and 5 years of age. A total number of 2176 were positive blood cultures between the year 2017 to 20202 at Makerere University Clinical Microbiology Laboratory. Of these 132 blood cultures were Enterococci positive with a percentage prevalence of 6.07%. The most prevalent organism was Coagulase-negative staphylococci with a total number of 667 (30.65%) organisms and the least prevalent was Proteus Mirabilis with a total number of 4 (0.18%). </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The study found that ages between 0 to 5 years had the highest incidence of enterococcal infections and the occurrence of these infections increased with the years.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>Since the highest infections occurred between the ages 0 to 5 years, this showed that the infection was nosocomial and hence doctors should adhere to infection prevention and control protocols when handling patients.</p> Daisy Nashibula Asia Mustafah Copyright (c) 2022 Daisy Nashibula, Asia Mustafah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.279 Identity of Fusarium species associated with collar rot and wilt in passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/246 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Despite the immense contribution of passion fruits to people’s livelihood on a global scale, the crop’s productivity remains low owing to fungal diseases causing up to 100% loss. Fungi are highly variable and the identity of species or variates responsible for recently devastating passion fruit wilt and collar rot diseases had not been characterized. This study was aimed at identifying pathogens causing wilt and collar rot symptoms in passion fruits.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>Fungi were isolated from diseased samples collected from three locations in Central Uganda to identify <em>Fusarium spp</em> associated with collar rot and wilting of passion fruit. This was established by differentiating mycelium pigmentation on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), examining slides at X40 magnification under a light microscope for specific macro and microconidia, and amplification with specific Transcription Elongation Factor-1α, TEF 1α primers for identification of <em>Fusarium spp</em>.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>It was revealed that wilting was associated with a single species, out of 6 selected isolates from the suspected wilted plant, 3 were <em>Fusarium spp</em> associated with the disease in the field but only one of these isolates was proved to be a pathogenic type <em>Fusarium oxysporium</em>. Collar rot was associated with one pathogenic <em>Fusarium spp</em> out of the 6 selected isolates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The results indicate that collar rot and <em>Fusarium</em> wilt are each caused by specific strains of <em>Fusarium</em> pathogens.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>The identification of pathogenic <em>Fusarium</em> in farmers’ orchards is a starting point for designing effective disease management measures against the predominant fungal pathogenic variants in passion fruits. </p> Florence Nassimbwa Enock Matovu Andrew Kiggundu Charles Changa Godfrey Sseremba Francis Mumbanza John Adriko Copyright (c) 2022 Florence Nassimbwa, Enock Matovu, Andrew Kiggundu, Charles Changa, Godfrey Sseremba, Francis Mumbanza, John Adriko https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.246 A descriptive cross-sectional study about the perception of Mental Illness among HIV Counselors in Bushenyi District. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/274 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The HIV/AIDS pandemic has led to millions of deaths as well as disability and negative outcomes on HIV affected individual. One such disability is mental illness which has been found to lead to increased prevalence of anxiety, depression and substance abuse among people living with HIVAIDS as compared to the general population.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the perception of Mental Illness among HIV Counselors in Bushenyi District. A total of 30 respondents participated in the study and they were selected by use of purposive sampling procedure. Data was collected using questionnaires and (SPSS) was used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The study found that 50% of the participants said that HIV patient who had mental illness were not responsible for their illness, HIV patients who have mental illness are more dangerous to the general public, 70% said that it is not true, (73%) said that HIV and mental illness are related, (96.7%) said they would recommend pharmacotherapy, counselors (50%) found that clients with emotional problems was their major challenge about the patients, 12(40%) said clients with strange behavior and (54%) said they would confront the problem.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Although HIV counselors portrayed a sense of self-efficacy to manage mental health problems among their HIV positive clients, their interventions were limited by their lack of expertise to deal with specific mental health problems.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>Training needs assessment for HIV counselors, enhancing integration of mental health care in HIV service provision, improving awareness needs to be built among HIV counselors about the mental health problems that affect people living with HIV/AIDS, HIV service provision policies to be revised to emphasize mental health aspects.</p> Moses Musitwa Ignatious Lusalalira Copyright (c) 2022 Moses Musitwa , Ignatious Lusalalira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 15 15 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.274 A Cross-sectional study to identify the factors contributing to low uptake of 1st ANC services among pregnant mothers in first trimester at Kamira Health Centre III, Luweero District. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/225 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>A study was carried out to identify the factors contributing to low uptake of 1st ANC services among pregnant mothers during the first trimester at Kamira Health Centre III, Luweero District. The study design was descriptive and cross-sectional and it employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. A sample of 60 respondents was selected using a purposive sampling procedure and an interview guide was used to collect data. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Socio-economic factors contributing to low uptake of 1st ANC services among pregnant mothers during the first trimester as 36 (60%) reported 4 – 6 months as the age at which they were supposed to start attending ANC services, 40 (66.7%) started attending ANC between 4 – 6 months and the major reasons were lack of awareness/knowledge 24 (40%) and lack of support 16 (26.7%). 40 (66.7%) reported that the income was not enough to enable access to ANC services as 24 (40%) resided 4 – 5 km away and 24 (40%) spent between 5,000 – 10,000shs on transport to the health facility. Health facility factors contributed to low uptake of 1st ANC services among pregnant mothers during the first trimester as 40 (67%) reported that Kamira Health Centre III was understaffed, and 20 (50%) had the inadequate infrastructure to handle large numbers of mothers. 40 (67%) reported that health workers had negative attitudes during the provision of ANC services to mothers 24 (40%) mentioned that they were rude and unwelcoming and 16 (26.7%) mentioned that health workers had poor customer care skills. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Respondents faced various socio-economic, cultural, and health facility factors which contributed to low uptake of 1st ANC services among pregnant mothers during the first trimester. </p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Including improving efficiency and reducing waiting time, improving customer care, more support, and health education about ANC among others.</p> <p> </p> Edward Mwesigwa Copyright (c) 2022 Edward Mwesigwa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 26 26 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.225 Internal Control Systems and Financial Accountability of Local Governments in Uganda. A Case study of Iganga District, Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/266 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>This study investigated the relationship between the internal control systems and financial accountability of local governments in Ugandan a case study of the district by examining the relationship between control environment and financial accountability; control activities and financial accountability and assessing the relationship between Information and communication and financial accountability in district local government. </p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>The researcher used a questionnaire to collect data from the field and used the SPSS data analysis package version 2022, Pearson correlation to determine the relationship between the variables under investigation. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The findings revealed a strong relationship between control activities and financial accountability with dimensions such as expenditures and disbursements requests backed by appropriate supporting documents, approval of expenditures, and cash releases by authorized persons, Bank reconciliations reviewed by an officer independent of those processing cash, and payments, clear separation of roles and responsibilities, Budget reviews, presence of a system that identifies and safeguards Institutional Assets more findings found a significant relationship between information and communication with generating relevant quality information to support the functioning of internal control if employs freely discuss internal control matters with those charged with governance and if organization reviews the received information from external parties and responds appropriately as the major constructs for promotion of financial accountability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>There is a significant relationship between the internal control environment and financial accountability as reflected by the Pearson correlation; significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed.)</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>Local governments must invest more effort in the accounting and financial management system, and management must continuously and effectively be committed to the accounting system which will enrich financial accountability.</p> Dauda Kongola Edmand Bakashaba Copyright (c) 2022 Kongola Dauda , Bakashaba Edmand https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.266 Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial performance in Centenary Bank - main branch. A Cross-sectional study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/263 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and the Financial performance of Centenary Bank, main branch by examining the relationship between philanthropic responsibility and financial performance, establishing the relationship between economic responsibility and financial performance, and assessing the relationship between ethical responsibility and financial performance of Centenary bank. </p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>This study followed a descriptive correlational and cross-sectional survey design and adopted a quantitative paradigm. The researcher collected data from a sample of 132 employees using a self -administered questionnaire. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The study findings revealed that 52% of the corporate social responsibility activities of the centenary bank are economical, followed by 37% of the corporate social responsibility were ethical and 11% of its corporate social responsibilities were philanthropic. There was a significant relationship (r=0.4, sig=0.00) between philanthropic responsibility and the financial performance of Centenary bank. There was also a negative significant (r= -0.374, sig=0.045) relationship between economic responsibility and the financial performance of Centenary bank. There was a positive significant relationship between ethical responsibility and the financial performance of Centenary bank. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Generally, there is a relationship between corporate social responsibility and the financial performance of the Centenary bank. </p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>Centenary banks should engage in philanthropic activities to maintain a good reputation through supporting the Kabaka run and providing piped water, and scholarships to unprivileged children. Centenary bank should also be effective in communicating with stakeholders, ensuring the safety of customer balances, and offering quality customer service to attract more customers for its financial growth. Centenary bank should also reduce its expenditure on non-productive activities like bonuses and travel allowances for senior staff to reduce the significant unnecessary expenditure. </p> <p> </p> Miria Birungi Edmand Bakashaba Copyright (c) 2022 Miria Birungi , Edmand Bakashaba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 22 22 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.263 Credit Risk and Financial Performance of Selected Commercial Banks in Kampala District, Uganda. A Cross-sectional Study https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/261 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>The main purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between credit risk and the financial performance of commercial banks in Uganda by; examining the relationship between default risk and financial performance and examining the relationship between recovery risk and financial performance of commercial banks.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study used a descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional research design. It also adopted both quantitative and qualitative survey designs. The study sample size comprised of 130 employees of the selected commercial banks in the Kampala Central business district. Further, the study used a questionnaire as a research instrument and simple random sampling to collect data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The findings revealed that the average loan approval period was 2.65 weeks with a minimum of 1 and maximum of 5 weeks. This signifies inefficiency as customers may not use the borrowed funds for its intended purpose as money comes after a long time. Further, the results show that customers must at least wait for two weeks to access a loan.</p> <p>The findings of the Kaplan plot showed a negative relationship between loan period and recovery rate. Further, there is a steep fall in the recovery of loans after 6 months.</p> <p>The findings revealed r = 0.441 correlation coefficient and a sig value of 0.00. This indicated a significant positive relationship between recovery risk and financial performance of commercial banks. The correlation between default risk and financial performance of the selected commercial banks was -0.476. Therefore, there is a negative significant relationship between default risk and financial performance of commercial banks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Generally, there was a relationship between credit risk and financial performance of the selected commercial banks.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>The selected commercial banks need to improve efficiency in operations by reducing on the loan approval period to at least one week.</p> Edmand Bakashaba Josephine Miremba Lutaaya Hope Arinaitwe Copyright (c) 2022 Edmand Bakashaba , Josephine Miremba Lutaaya, Hope Arinaitwe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 21 21 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.261 Job Satisfaction And Employee Performance In Local Government: A Case Study Of Kyankwanzi District, Uganda https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/280 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>This study was about Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance in Local Government using Kyankwanzi District by establishing the link between promotion and employee attitude, working conditions and employee attendance, the relationship with supervisor and duration in service.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The researcher adopted a correlational, descriptive and cross-sectional survey design. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. A sample of 63 respondents was selected using Krejcie &amp; Morgan’s (1970) table from a population of 75. The researcher employed simple random sampling, purposive sampling, quota sampling and convenience sampling to select respondents who participated in the study in order to eliminate bias. The instruments of data collection the researcher used include questionnaire, interview guide and documentary review.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The study established that male respondents dominated the study with 70% response followed by their female counterpart who comprised of 30%. Also the findings revealed that there was a relationship between job satisfaction (independent variable) and employee attendance (dependent variable). It shows a correlation coefficient of r= 0.840. This implies that there is a significant (0.000) positive relationship between job satisfaction and employee attendance at Kyankwanzi District Local Government. In conclusion, the study has dealt with inferential statistical analysis and interpretations. The researcher investigated the existence of an association between the task grades and the responses of the employees for questionnaire statements. This was done using a null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Future studies should be centered on staff training and poor service delivery in newly elevated cities focusing on political manipulation, corruption and lack of accountability and transparency.</p> Amos Ofumbi Edmand Bakashaba Copyright (c) 2022 Amos Ofumbi , Edmand Bakashaba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.280 Household size and Socio-Economic Development in Kibuku District, Uganda: A Cross-sectional study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/272 <p><strong>Background of the study </strong></p> <p>The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of household size on socio-economic development in the Kibuku district by establishing the average size of households, determining the level of socio-economic development among households, and establishing the relationship between household size and socio-economic development in the Kibuku district. </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A descriptive comparative, correlational, and cross-sectional survey design was employed for this study. A sample size of 308 households was selected using the Slovene formula. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Of the 300 respondents to the study, 180 were females and 120 were males. Also, 86 of the 300 selected households have 1-5 members. The findings also revealed that a big number of households in the Kibuku district depend on their parents, there were no improved medical care services, and limited to clean water in the district as surgeries and complicated health issues are carried out from the neighboring districts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The level of social economic development in the Kibuku district was still wanting and below the national average. There was also a significant relationship between household size and social economic status. </p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>Based on the findings, there is a need to sensitize the population in the Kibuku district about the use of family planning to reduce the dependence burden on household heads. Also, there is a need to awaken the government to provide social infrastructures such as electricity and tarmacked roads to increase the level of employment opportunities and household incomes of the locals.</p> Herbert Tom Kinobere Edmand Bakashaba Copyright (c) 2022 Herbert Tom Kinobere , Edmand Bakashaba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.272 Interest Rates and Loan Repayment in Finance Trust Bank, Katwe Branch. A Cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/264 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The main objective of the study was to establish the relationship between interest rates and loan repayment by examining the relationship between Central bank rate and loan repayment, loan size and loan repayment, and bargaining power and loan repayment at Finance Trust Bank. </p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>The study was carried out at Finance trust bank- Katwe main branch, Rubaga division, Kampala district using data relating to three years from 2019 to 2021 since it was a period when the commercial bank had issues regarding loan defaults. The researcher used a descriptive correlational survey design and adopted a quantitative approach to collect, analyze and interpret data for this study. </p> <p>The sample size of the study was 56 employees of the Finance trust bank-Katwe branch. The researcher used a simple random sampling technique to select staff that participated in this study and a purposive sampling technique was used to select managers who assisted in identifying other employees to participate in the study. </p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The correlation between the Central bank rate and loan repayment was -0.120 with a Sig value of 0.117. This shows a negative weak relationship between the Central bank rate and loan repayment at Finance Trust Bank. The correlation between bargaining power and loan repayment was 0.246 with a significant value of 0.753. Therefore, there is a weak positive relationship between bargaining power and loan repayment. </p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Generally, bargaining power, central bank rate, and loan size have a relationship with loan repayment at Finance Trust Bank and thus influence the repayment of loans.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>The commercial bank should reduce the interest rates charged on loans, give customers a chance to participate in the loan repayment schedule, and use credit scores to establish the repayment capacity of customers in order to avoid loan defaults.</p> <p> </p> Joseph Atubasise Edmand Bakashaba Copyright (c) 2022 Joseph Atubasise, Edmand Bakashaba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.264 Micro Finance Loans and Financial Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in Sembabule District. A Cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/262 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>This study aimed at examining the relationship between loan access and the financial performance of SMEs in the Sembabule district; the relationship between microfinance lending terms and the financial performance of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Sembabule district, and the relationship between Microfinance loan sizes and the financial performance of SMEs.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional survey design. The study sample size was 53 SMEs within the district to establish the relationship between the study variables and use self-administered questionnaires and interviews to collect relevant data for this study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Of the 50 respondents to the study, 30 were females and 20 were males. This shows that the majority 60% of the respondents were females and 40% were males. The correlational findings revealed a spearman’s co-efficient of -0.242 with a Sig value of 0.117. This shows a negative weak relationship between loan access and the financial performance of SMEs in the Sembabule district. The spearman’s correlation coefficient of 0.724 was revealed with a significant value of 0.004. This shows a strong positive relationship between lending terms and financial performance. Therefore favorable lending terms led to the improved financial performance of SMEs in the Sembabule district.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Generally, microloan access, lending terms, and loan size have a significant relationship with the financial performance of SMEs in the Sembabule district.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>SMEs should avoid taking loans that take a sizable proportion of their business as this affects decision-making, operations, and financial performance of the business. The loan should be kept below 15% of the total capital of the business.</p> Vincent Abomugisha Miria Birungi Joseph Atubasise Edmand Bakashaba Copyright (c) 2022 Vincent Abomugisha , Miria Birungi , Joseph Atubasise , Edmand Bakashaba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 18 18 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.262 Behavioural risk-factors associated with the use of Facemask during Covid-19 pandemic lockdown period in Nigeria: online-based survey https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/221 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Background:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The Coronavirus disease has rapidly become a public health challenge, with many countries adopting the usage of facemasks as one of the protective strategies against the virus. This study aimed to assess the behavioral risk factors associated with the use of facemasks during the Covid-19 pandemic lockdown period in Nigeria.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> <strong>Methods:</strong> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The study recruited 500 participants in an online-based survey through a cloud-based platform called Google Forms. The main scales; facemask usage and behavioral risk factors were measured on a 0-27 and 0-24 point rating scale respectively, while the subscales are utilization, prevention, and perceived threats were measured on a 0-16, 0-19, and 0-5 point rating scale. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Result:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The usage of facemasks accounts for 32.8% (daily), 12.2% (weekly), 38.2% (monthly basis), and 16.8% use facemasks out of necessity. More than half (55.6%) use facemasks because of fear of punishment by the task force while challenges associated with the usage of facemasks include: difficulty breathing (47%) and suffocation (24%). A significant association was found between the use of facemasks and the prevention of COVID-19 (b= 0.029, 95% CI =0.055 - 0.114, p-value 0.049, r2=11.1%). </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The use of facemasks has become a norm and passed into law in Nigeria, however not a pleasant practice for most people</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendation:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Therefore there is a need for mass awareness and education to improve the use of facemasks in Nigeria.</span></p> Ogechukwu, Emmanuel Okondu Khadija Abubakar Maitanmi Julius Olatade Akingbade Oluwadamilare Adesuyi Emmanuel O Olugasa Babasola Anyanwu Favour Chiamaka Ekezie Modestina Amuche Ifediora Uchenna Loveth Arulogun, Oyedunni S Okondu Chinedu Worlu Copyright (c) 2022 Ogechukwu, Emmanuel Okondu, Khadija Abubakar, Maitanmi Julius Olatade, Akingbade Oluwadamilare, Adesuyi Emmanuel O, Olugasa Babasola, Anyanwu Favour Chiamaka, Ekezie Modestina Amuche, Ifediora Uchenna Loveth, Arulogun, Oyedunni S, Okondu Chinedu Worlu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.221 Prevalence of anemia and factors affecting its management strategies among children below five years at Mityana general hospital, Mityana district. A cross sectional study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/294 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Anemia is a public health concern in the world affecting both developing and developed countries. It is one of the major causes of death among children under five years in Africa, with a prevalence of 64.6% among preschool children. (BMC Pediatrics, 2017)</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>This was a cross-sectional study that involved health workers attending to children admitted to the Paediatric ward at MGH. The sample size was 85 health workers, it was determined using the Kish and Leslie formula. Data were analyzed using tables and pie charts. It was conducted to assess the prevalence of anemia and factors affecting its management strategies among children below five years at MGH, Mityana district.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Study findings revealed that anemia is one of the commonest conditions encountered in the pediatric ward with 20-30 children with anemia being admitted to the pediatric ward on a daily basis. 45, (53%) reported that 20-30 children with anemia are admitted on a daily basis.75 (88%) reported that 10-20 children report anemia as a complication on a daily basis. 65(76%) reported that 10-20 children present with complications as a result of long-standing anemia on a daily basis, Majority of health workers, 72 (85%) reported the use of a holistic/multidisciplinary approach in the management of anemia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Anemia was found to be highly prevalent in children admitted to the ward, respondents managed anemia mostly with blood transfusion and oral ferrous sulfate. It was also found that they didn't have enough drugs to aid in the management of anemia in children below five years.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>The researcher recommends Continuous Support supervision by health professionals to improve the management of anemia in children below five years and a Frequently monitored supply of drugs in government facilities by the MOH.</p> Kabunga Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 Kabunga Ibrahim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.294 Factors influencing the prevalence of active trachoma in children aged one to nine years in Buyengo sub county Jinja district Uganda. A cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/276 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Trachoma Continues to be hyper-endemic in many rural areas of Uganda, Buyengo sub-county is one such area. It is an ancient Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) which up to date is among the leading causes of avoidable blindness in the world. The disease is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is usually found in communities with poor hygiene and disappears spontaneously with the improving the socio-economic status of a community. Lifestyle and culture are known to influence the occurrence of trachoma and other eye diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>A descriptive cross-sectional study using both qualitative and quantitative methods was conducted in March 2016. Data was collected through face-to-face interviews, Observations, and examination of children eyes using structured questionnaires as guides.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Out of the 472 Children 6 (1.3%) were positive for active trachoma of these 1.3% had trachomatous follicular <strong>(TF) </strong>while 0% had trachomatous inflammation (TI) The children were found to washing their face without soap was 23.4 times more likely to get active trachoma as compared to those who used soap to wash their face (P&lt;0.05) unclean faces were also 9.1 times more likely to lead children to acquire active trachoma (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p>No availability of a pit latrine led to more chances of getting a trachoma infection (10 times) as compared to places where a latrine was available (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>The prevalence of active trachoma is low (1.3%) in the Buyengo sub-county with the following associated factors Unclean face of the child, Not washing the face with soap, not having a latrine, and availability of flies in the child’s face.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>There is a need for health workers to continue giving health education on the prevention of trachoma during village health talks, in outpatient departments, in the consultation room, and on radio talk shows.</p> Norman Ndikuno Copyright (c) 2022 Norman Ndikuno https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.276 Correlates and perceived risk of harm from tobacco products use in brunei darussalam: A secondary analysis of adult tobacco survey https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/222 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cancer and heart disease, and it has been related to a shorter life expectancy in people who continue to smoke. <strong>Aim:</strong> We measured the perceived risk of harm from tobacco product use and predicted factors among adult Bruneians. </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A secondary analysis of the 1295 adult population using a record of adult tobacco survey conducted in December 2014- January 2015 in Brunei Darussalam</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Out of the 92% of respondents who do not consider a smoke-free environment as important or not at all important, only 13.7% of them were smokers. Of the 89% of respondents with a good perceived risk of harm from tobacco product use, 12.8% of them were smokers and 76.1% were non-smokers, and 87.4% of respondents with good knowledge of tobacco health-related issues, 12.2% were current tobacco smokers against 75% non- smokers. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </p> <p>The age of respondents and their level of education was associated with the perceived risk of harm. </p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> </p> <p>A regulatory system is needed in reducing exposure to tobacco smoke.</p> Ogechukwu, Emmanuel Okondu Hjh Norhayati Hj Md Kassim Siti Khadizah Fakhriah Binti Hj Bakri Mardiah Hj Mahmud Okondu Chinedu Worlu Copyright (c) 2022 Ogechukwu, Emmanuel Okondu, Hjh Norhayati Hj Md Kassim, Siti Khadizah Fakhriah Binti Hj Bakri, Mardiah Hj Mahmud, Okondu Chinedu Worlu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.222 Factors associated with Ebola preventive measures adherence among refugees in Kampala: A cross-sectional study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/295 <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>Since last September, when it was declared an outbreak, the Ebola virus disease (EVD) has increased fear and threatened the public health system in Uganda. Cases registered in Kampala worsen the situation and raise public concern. The primary concern of all populations, including refugees, is avoiding disease transmission. Public health recommendations emphasize the importance of observation, including movement restrictions, social distancing, and hand-washing, in limiting the virus's transmission and spread. However, a challenge for vulnerable populations due to their socioeconomic status is noted. The present study examined factors associated with the practice of EVD preventive measures among refugees in Kampala.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>:</p> <p> A cross-sectional study design was conducted using a structured questionnaire, focusing on refugee practices against EVD. With SPSS version 21, variables were analyzed and compared for association with data collected from 207 refugees in Kampala. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was done, and a Chi-square test set at a 0.05 level of significance was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:</p> <p>The findings revealed a high level of general awareness about EVD, with a mean age of 28.38 years. However, understanding Luganda, regular seeking of information, having enough water and sanitizer, being willing to take the vaccine, having a close friend or relative who has ever been suspected of or diagnosed with EVD, and denial of its existence in Kampala all impacted the adherence to preventive practices among refugees in Kampala (p&lt;.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>Practicing Ebola preventive measures effectively is not always easy for vulnerable groups of populations, such as refugees. Understanding the local language is a major factor in getting accurate information and practicing the right measures to avoid getting or spreading the disease. </p> <p><strong>Recommendation</strong>:</p> <p>Involving refugees in response teams and focusing on refugee informal settlements is key to easing information transmission and increasing adhesion to preventive measures among refugees.</p> <p> </p> Rodrigue Muderhwa Bacigale Copyright (c) 2022 Rodrigue Muderhwa Bacigale https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 18 18 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.295 Factors associated with the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines: A cross-sectional study among the students of Bishop Stuart University in South-western Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/297 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Numerous vaccines against coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were approved and distributed globally. However, little information was available on the factors that affect the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines in Uganda. The aim of this study is to find out the Factors associated with the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among the Students of Bishop Stuart University, Mbarara City.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study design using qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed. Data was collected from a sample of randomly selected 370 respondents from Bishop Stuart University. Qualitative and Quantitative data collection methods were employed. Data was collected between 11th July and 3rd October 2022. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26 was used during the analysis. Chi-square and logistic regressions were used to assess factors associated with the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines. Factors with p-values &lt;0.2 at bivariate analysis were entered into multivariate analysis. Factors with p&lt;0.05 were considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Respondents that reported always being busy with domestic work indicated a lower likelihood for the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines (AOR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.40-0.99, <em>p </em>= 0.045). Respondents who perceived that the costs in the hospital were too high to manage Covid-19 illness indicated a higher likelihood for uptake of Covid-19 vaccines (AOR = 3.4, 95%CI: 1.93-6.12, p &lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>Domestic work has been found to hinder the majority of the respondents from vaccinating against Covid-19. High rates of the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines were registered among those who feared the high costs of Covid-19 illness management in hospitals.<strong> </strong>The cultural norms associated with being a male or female had impacted the decision to take Covid-19 vaccines<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>Community outreaches should be organized to sensitize communities about the dangers of domestic work and how to strike a balance when it comes to daily activities.</p> Mary Jesenta Ngabirano Francis Kazibwe Ronald Bahati Bright Laban Waswa Wycliffe Tumwesigye Copyright (c) 2022 Mary Jesenta Ngabirano , Francis Kazibwe , Ronald Bahati , Bright Laban Waswa, Wycliffe Tumwesigye https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 15 15 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.297 A Cross-sectional survey exploring vaccine hesitancy in students attending a South African university. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/286 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Vaccine hesitancy is a global problem. This phenomenon is context specific and has a changing nature. It may be difficult to address vaccine hesitancy with a one-size-fits-all approach. The causes of vaccine hesitancy should thus be known in order to properly address this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore vaccine hesitancy in students attending a South African university.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study was performed via an electronic survey, namely the Student Vaccine Hesitancy Questionnaire. Data was gathered during alert level 4 of the first official Covid lockdown in SA and the students were only reachable via the electronic student platform of the University. The study population was approximately 57 000 university students and 1016 students participated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The students’ answers were analysed and the results showed vaccine hesitancy to be prevalent in 24.3% (n=247) of the participants. It was found that age and mother tongue were the only two demographic factors addressed in this study that had a significant association with vaccine hesitancy. Healthcare workers is a trusted and preferred source of information. Healthcare environments (like healthcare centres and pharmacies) are preferred locations to receive information and be vaccinated. Take into consideration that family plays an important role when it comes to vaccination decisions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Vaccine hesitancy is a context-specific phenomenon and as this study shows it would be important to always investigate the specific preferences of persons in a context before any vaccination programmes are being launched.</p> Aniske Leeuwner Marietta Basson Willem Basson Copyright (c) 2022 Aniske Leeuwner , Marietta Basson, Willem Basson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 23 23 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.286 Prevalence of the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines: A cross-sectional study among the students of Bishop Stuart University in South-western Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/298 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Different studies have been carried out on acceptance of Covid-19 vaccines, willingness to be vaccinated against Covid-19, and factors associated with the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines but very few studies have been carried out to find out the prevalence of the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines, especially among university students. The aim of this study, therefore, is to find out the prevalence of the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines among the students of Bishop Stuart University. </p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study design using qualitative and quantitative approaches was employed. Data was collected from a sample of randomly selected 370 respondents between 11th July and 3rd October 2022 from Bishop Stuart University. Qualitative and Quantitative data collection methods were employed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 26 was used during the analysis. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The prevalence of uptake of Covid-19 Vaccines among the students of BSU was 57.0% where the majority of the respondents were females, 52.2% (n=193), students aged ≤30 years, 59.2% (n=215), those from middle-income, 57.3% (n=212), Christians, 60.8% (n = 225) and undergraduates, 89.2% (n = 330).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>More than half of the students of Bishop Stuart University were vaccinated with at least one of the vaccines against COVID-19 vaccine; the general uptake of Covid-19 vaccines among these students with a full dose was low as shown by the results of those who took a full dose of AstraZeneca, Johnson &amp; Johnson or any other Covid-19 vaccine.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation: </strong></p> <p>The study recommended that effective sensitization and psycho-education should be carried out to educate the general public about the effectiveness of the uptake of Covid-19 vaccines. </p> Mary Jesenta Ngabirano Francis Kazibwe Ronald Bahati Bright Laban Waswa Wycliffe Tumwesigye Copyright (c) 2022 Mary Jesenta Ngabirano , Francis Kazibwe, Ronald Bahati, Bright Laban Waswa, Wycliffe Tumwesigye https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.298 Quality of Research in Graduate Schools of Ugandan Universities: An Authoritative Opinion https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/289 <p>This paper is based on analyzed literature on the appraisal of the quality of research and innovations in Ugandan universities. Its purpose is to reflect on the factors that impact Uganda's ranking globally. It focuses on graduate schools where the component of research and innovation is a requirement in many programs of study. The paper is partly an appraisal of the performances of university education that revolves around the traditional functions: teaching-learning, carrying out research, and engagement in community outreach services. It attempts to articulate major challenges which Ugandan graduate students face and to propose some strategies for a way forward.</p> Aloysius Lwanga Bukenya Copyright (c) 2022 Aloysius Lwanga Bukenya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3 12 8 8 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i12.289