Student's Journal of Health Research Africa https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html <p>Student’s Journal of Health Research Africa (SJHR-Africa) is an open-access journal that includes all branches of Medicine and health research to narrow the knowledge gap in Africa, (<strong>ISSN 2709-9997). </strong> The journal is peer-reviewed and promotes research on the African continent by accepting original research ideas from African students who are doing research.</p> <p>We are the journal for African students that believes in sharing information for free. Publishing in a total of 39 sections, SJHR-Africa is here to meet the needs of an African student. We believe that when we integrate Knowledge from different academic disciplines, Africa will be a complete ecosystem with adequate scholarly materials to bridge the knowledge gap.</p> <p>As the world becomes more integrated, our scope extends to biological sciences, Vocational studies that have an impact on health such as Agriculture. Informational technology, Environmental science, Business studies, and planning have also shown to influence Health. The journal brings together individual specialties from different fields into a dynamic academic mix. We intended to enhance communication among health system researchers and administrators, policy and decision-makers, legislators, practitioners, educators, students, and other types of professionals in the research that might have an effect on the healthcare delivery systems.</p> <p> </p> Student's Journal of Health Research en-US Student's Journal of Health Research Africa 2709-9997 Influence of Socio-demographic Factors on Health Facility-based Childbirth in Yambio County, South Sudan. A Cross-Sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/233 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Background:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">South Sudan is facing a very big challenge with making Maternal Care Services available for women in rural areas due to a lack of sufficient policy for strengthening the health sector in the Country. It’s found out that, most women in South Sudan give birth to their babies on the floor in government hospitals, cutting the umbilical cord with a stick. The study aims to look at the Influence of socio-demographic factors on health facility-based childbirth in Yambio County, South Sudan.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">This was a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach to assess factors that influence health facility-based childbirth. This study was conducted from August 2021 to September 2021 among lactating women using Yambio State Hospital for health facility-based childbirth and those residing in Yambio town Payam, Western Equatoria State, South Sudan.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Results:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">(50.3%) of the respondents aged 21-25 years old, the majority of the respondents only completed a primary level of education (46%), followed by those with secondary (32%) and with tertiary education (22%). (82%) were married. The majority (36.8%) of the respondent was unemployed followed by those self-employed (26.8%). Nearly three-quarters (73%) of the respondents did indicate that they had monthly incomes of less than 10,000 SSP. About 23% of respondents had an income of (10,000 SSP – 20,000 SSP) and only about 4% had an income of more than 20,000 SSP. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The socio-demographic factors associated with health facility-based childbirth include the mother’s age (21 – 25 years), being a full-time student, and working for either government or private business. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendations</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Women and their husbands should have a source of income so that they would be able to have transport that expectant mothers can easily take to the hospital. </span></p> William Ngbadurezere Copyright (c) 2022 William Ngbadurezere https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 14 14 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.233 Applying the Health Belief Model on the Perception and attitude towards Diabetes Mellitus among public secondary school students in Southern Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/231 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism which has become a 21<sup>st</sup>-century pandemic. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents (10-19 years) in Africa are steadily rising. Students in post-primary schools constitute a large part of this population where poor perception and attitude towards DM prevention have been reported. The purpose of the study was to investigate the perception of DM using the Health Belief Model (HBM) among public secondary school students in Delta State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong></p> <p>The study adopted a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in November 2019 and February 2022 in Ogbe secondary school Effurun and Nana College Warri. A simple random sampling technique was utilized to select 700 students. The data was gathered using a three-part structured questionnaire A-C. Section A comprises demographic characteristics; B contains perception questions and C contains questions on attitude towards DM. The Chi-Square test was used to analyze the association between perception variables and attitude toward DM at a P&lt;0.05 level of significance. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Respondents' average age was 14.99±1.86 years and 423(60.4%) were females. The majority of participants 621(88.7%) have heard of DM and 88(14.2%) have relatives with DM. The majority of responders exhibited poor perceived susceptibility 499(80.4%), severity 406(65.4%), barriers 484(77.9%), and attitude 443(71.3%) towards DM management and prevention. However, 397(63.9%) exhibited good perceived benefits of DM prevention. Age (χ<sup>2</sup>=12.91, ρ=0.002), Sex (χ<sup>2</sup>=28.45, ρ=0.000) Perceived susceptibility (χ<sup>2</sup>=173.83, ρ=0.000), Perceived severity (χ<sup>2</sup>=329.89, ρ=0.000) and Perceived barriers (χ<sup>2</sup>=298.51, ρ=0.000) were significantly associated with attitude at P&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>The findings showed poor perception and attitude towards DM management and prevention among the study respondents. DM prevention intervention targeting the HBM constructs should be implemented in secondary schools to improve the knowledge, perception, and attitude towards DM among in-school adolescents.</p> Otovwe Agofure Edema-Eyen Oritseje HonourGod Oghenerume Copyright (c) 2022 OTOVWE AGOFURE, Edema-Eyen Oritseje, HonourGod Oghenerume https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 14 14 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.231 Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Medical Waste Management among Health Workers at Mityana District Hospital, Mityana District. A Cross-sectional Descriptive Survey https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/121 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong></p> <p>The Ministry of Health (MoH) of Uganda with support from the Government of Uganda highly advocates for proper Hospital waste management, this is because poor medical waste disposal and management pose serious health consequences and significant impact on the health workers, patients, and waste handlers and the environment. However, there is a general paucity of information on the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices of health workers towards medical waste management in Mityana district hospital and Uganda at large. </p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong></p> <p>The purpose of the study, therefore, was to ascertain the knowledge, attitude, and practices of health workers towards hospital waste management in Mityana district hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among 116 health workers at Mityana District hospital. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Statistical significance of association between variables was assessed using the Chi-square test at p&lt;0.05. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of Makerere University<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>All 116 respondents returned the completed questionnaires. sixty-three (54.3%) males and fifty-three (45.7%) females. The mean age of respondents was 36.3 years. 81 (69.8%) had heard of hospital waste management while, 35(30.2%) had never had about it. Out of the total respondents, 83 (71.6%) were aware that medical wastes are classified and segregated into their bags according to colors, although the majority of 74(63.8%) reported storage containers are not cleaned every day. In general, the respondents had average knowledge of medical waste management although 40.5 % lacked some knowledge at all. The majority of 101 (87.1%) use latex gloves when handling waste.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>Most of the respondents knew what healthcare waste management means, but very few practiced appropriate healthcare waste management.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>Health education and training are recommended for the health care workers periodically and regularly.</p> Immaculate Namutebi Zaitune Nanyunja Copyright (c) 2022 Immaculate Namutebi , Zaitune Nanyunja https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.121 A Cross-sectional study to assess the Level of knowledge of Youths aged 18-35 regarding negative Consequences of Cigarette smoking at Napier market, Jinja City. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/247 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Background</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">:</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Cigarette smoking is on the increase among youths, especially in developing countries, and is a leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality worldwide. Youths incorrectly perceive that cigarette smoking is less risky than other behaviors such as alcohol consumption and drug use. The purpose of this study is to assess the determinants of cigarette smoking among youths in Napier market, Jinja city</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">: </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">A cross-sectional descriptive study design employing both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection was employed. 30 respondents were selected using a convenient non-probability sampling method and data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Results</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">: </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Regarding knowledge of the dangers of cigarette smoking Majority of the respondents had heard about the dangers of cigarette smoking (80%). Commonly mentioned dangers of cigarette smoking included lung cancer (70%), mouth cancer (36%), heart diseases (30%), hypertension (32%), and stroke (22%). Sources of information were radios (64%) and peers (17%). Of the 57% of the respondents that were willing to quit, 74% did not know the exact time at which they hoped to quit cigarette smoking</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">: </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Respondents’ related factors associated with smoking were lack of employment (66%) non involvement in religious activities (66%) negative life experiences (63%), having a smoking friend (43%), and having smoking parents (36%)</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendation</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">: </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Although the majority of respondents had heard about the dangers of cigarette smoking, the majority scored below average on common dangers of cigarette smoking and the majority were not sure of when to quit the smoking habit, therefore there is an urgent need to create awareness about the specific dangers associated with cigarette smoking, the transient nature of its perceived benefits and the fact that the risks associated with smoking are severe.</span></p> Moses Hajusu Mangeni Sam Wanyonyi Boniface Ogwok Harriet Anamo Edmond Okello Michael Albert Olinga Copyright (c) 2022 MOSES HAJUSU MANGENI, Sam Wanyonyi, Boniface Ogwok, Harriet Anamo, Edmond Okello, Michael Albert Olinga https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.247 Bacterial Quality and Safety of Commercial Fish and Chicken Feeds Sold at Kisenyi Market, Kampala-Uganda. A Laboratory Based Cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/120 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The growth in the poultry and fish industry in Uganda has resulted in heavy dependence on finished feeds supplied by feed millers, the quality of which determines the profit margin of the farmers. The presence of pathogenic microbes, however, tends to deplete the nutritive value of these poultry and fish diets. This study, therefore, focused on assessing the prevalence of micro-organisms in commercial poultry and fish feeds sold at Kisenyi Market, Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> </p> <p>Poultry and fish feeds were randomly sampled and examined for their microbiological qualities using standard microbiological and analytical methods. The isolates were identified according to their cultural, microscopic, and biochemical properties. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> </p> <p>A total of 42 micro-organisms were isolated, including; <em>Citrobacter spp (4.76%), Corynebacterium spp (9.52%), E. coli (2.38%), and Enterococcus spp (35.71%) Proteus spp (2.38%) </em>and<em> S. aureus (45.2%). </em>Comparing contamination in pelleted and non-pelleted feeds, there was no significant difference in the microbial contamination (feeds (<em>X2</em> = 7.287, P&gt; 0.05). Their susceptibility pattern revealed major resistance of; <em>S. aureus</em> to Gentamycin (78.95%),<em> Corynebacterium spp </em>to linezolid (100%),<em> Enterococcus spp </em>to Gentamycin<em> (100%), </em>and negative rod enterococcus to Cefoxitin (100%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </p> <p>The presence of a high level of pathogenic micro-organisms in the selected feeds offered to poultry and fish predisposes them to health hazards, with resultant economic loss. Therefore, the commercial feeds should be periodically examined for biosafety, to reduce or prevent the risk of cross-contamination of poultry and poultry products with resistant bacterial strains. </p> Dut Ajou Malong Copyright (c) 2022 Dut Ajou Malong https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.120 What is the Level of Knowledge of Birth Control among Women of Reproductive Age in Bwaise Slum? A Cross-Sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/228 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Background</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The need to control childbirth and maintain a manageable family size is a fact of modern life. This is because of the social and economic realities of the modern world system. Because of this, the practice of contraception has remained in the spotlight. To increase birth control uptake, knowledge and awareness are frequently used. However, evidence on birth control knowledge among populations in low socioeconomic settings in Africa is limited. The goal of this research was to look into women's knowledge of birth control options in the Bwaise slum.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Using a cross-sectional study design, we interviewed 384 women aged 15–49 years, selected through systematic random sampling. Data on socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of birth control options, and birth control use were collected using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics (chi-square set at 0.05 level of significance) analysis were done using IBM SPSS version 21.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Results</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The mean age of participants was 29.39 years. There is a high level of knowledge and awareness of birth control options but with relatively low uptake, 91.4% of women knew at least one option. 66.4% of respondents reported using any birth control options in the past compared to 37.2% currently using. Injectable, oral pills and Norplant/implant were the most known and used options. Age, level of education, marital status, and income were significantly associated with the use of birth control (p&lt; 0.05).</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion and recommendation</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Our findings show that respondents have high knowledge of birth control but low use. We, therefore, recommend that government health agencies conduct a sensitization campaign aimed at the increase in the utilization of birth control services involving religious and cultural leaders. Women of reproductive age, to attend at least one SRH counseling session, in any health facility, to be updated with relevant news on birth control services.</span></p> Rodrigue Muderhwa Bacigale Copyright (c) 2022 Rodrigue Muderhwa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.228 Effects and coping mechanisms associated with Premenstrual Syndrome among female University Students in Central Uganda: A Cross-sectional Study https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/219 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The cyclic nature of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) affects those with severe symptoms in ways that make them incapacitated or inefficient every month impairing their quality of life. This problem in Uganda is compounded by the cultural stigma associated with menstruation making it difficult for ladies and communities to address the associated problems. Therefore, this study sought to identify how Premenstrual Syndrome affects the quality of life of female University students in Central Uganda in terms of effects and coping mechanisms. </p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire between November 2021 and May 2022. 238 participants from 4 universities who met the inclusion criteria were given self-administered questionnaires on PMS symptoms, effects and coping mechanisms. The data was analysed to obtain frequencies and percentages. Statistically significant associations between PMS and Effects of PMS as well as the Coping mechanism were determined using Chi-square correlations.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>At least 70 (33%) of the 212 respondents reported that the PMS symptoms affected either their school and/or their relationships or their daily activities plus home chores. Statistically significant effects of PMS on school efficiency were: sleeping in class χ2(1, n=212) = 4.957, p=0.026; and being late on assignments χ2(1, n=212) = 6.279, p=0.012.</p> <p>Coping mechanisms that were found to be statistically significantly associated with PMS at α-level of 5% were: hiding or locking self in a room χ2(1, n=212) = 4.846, p=0.028; taking alcohol χ2(1, n=212) = 5.115, p=0.024; seeing a health worker χ2(4, n=212) = 14.201, p=0.007; and taking pain killers χ2(1, n=212) = 5.202, p=0.03.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>PMS was significantly affecting school efficiency of students.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation</strong></p> <p>There are still huge knowledge gaps about PMS that need addressing.</p> <p>Some students reported that they used herbal preparations for PMS symptoms which need to be investigated for potential pharmaceutical development.</p> Elizabeth Atim Florence Nabushawo Okecho Regina Ndagire Catherine Lwanira Nassozi Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Atim, Florence Nabushawo Okecho, Regina Ndagire, Catherine Lwanira Nassozi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.219 A Cross-sectional study to assess the Level of Utilization of Immediate Postpartum Family Planning among Postnatal women in Lira Regional Referral Hospital. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/245 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Background: </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Over 214 million women globally have an unmet need for family planning. The majority of these women are in the postpartum period. About 336 mothers per 1000 live births in Uganda die due to pregnancy-related causes most of which are preventable. The use of contraception can prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions that normally lead to the loss of lives of these women. Immediate post-partum family planning services need to be emphasized, where these women should leave the hospital with a safe and effective method of contraception in place. Despite the accepted demand for postpartum family planning, many women do not intend to use modern methods of contraception in the immediate postpartum period. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Objective; </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">This study aimed to assess the use and perceptions of women on immediate postpartum family planning among postnatal women attending Lira Regional Referral Hospital.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">M<strong>ethods</strong>:</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 300 conveniently selected postnatal women in LRRH. The data was obtained and entered, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 23. Univariate analysis was done to determine frequencies and percentages of the study variables and bivariate analysis was done using binary logistic regression to determine associations </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Results: </span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Of a total of 310 postnatal women invited to the study, 300(97%) participated in the study of which 13(4.3%) reported having utilized IPPFP services. Age (p=0.002), Religion, Counseling, and knowledge about IPPFP (p=0.000) respectively were found to be significantly associated with the use of IPPFP. There was also an association between the client’s poor perceptions of the use of IPPF with (P=0.005).</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusions and recommendations:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The IPPFP use among postnatal women attending Lira Regional Referral Hospital is very low (4.3%). </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendations</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Therefore, multi-pronged Interventions should be implemented to address the poor perceptions of these postnatal women toward the uptake of IPPFP.</span></p> Benard Obua Felex Okori Copyright (c) 2022 Felex Okori, Benard Obua https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 12 12 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.245 Social-demographic factors associated with Premenstrual Syndrome among female University students in Central Uganda: A Cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/220 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder among females of reproductive age, which also happens to be the most productive period within the life of a woman. Unfortunately, the aetiology of PMS is still not known; although, the following theories have been proposed to explain PMS symptoms: A genetic predisposition; changes in neurotransmitter levels; or changes in different hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. </p> <p>In Uganda the factors associated with PMS are hardly documented, making awareness, prevention, and management complicated. The aim of this study, was to determine the social demographic factors associated with PMS among female university students in Central Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire between November 2021 and May 2022. 238 female students in 4 universities who consented and met the inclusion criteria participated in the study. Data which was obtained about social demographic characteristics and PMS symptoms was coded and analysed to obtain descriptive statistics and Chi-square correlations. </p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The mean age of the respondents was 22.67±5.595, with most of the respondents (188, 88.7%) being between 19 to 24 years of age, the minimum age was 19 years and the maximum was 55 years. Among this study population, menarche age group χ2(2, n=212) = 7.756, p=0.021, and several menstrual bleeding days χ2(1, n=212) = 5.188, p=0.023 were associated with PMS among the female university students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The cause of the PMS among this study population is likely biological as respondents who reported that they started their menses started at age ≤12 years; as well as those whose bleeding days were more than or equal to 5 days were more likely to suffer PMS.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation</strong></p> <p>Studies need to be carried out to investigate the biological causes of PMS to guide management and prevention.</p> Elizabeth Atim Florence Nabushawo Okecho Regina Ndagire Catherine Lwanira Nassozi Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Atim, Florence Nabushawo Okecho, Regina Ndagire, Catherine Lwanira Nassozi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 9 9 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.220 The Level of Contraceptive Knowledge among Female University Undergraduates in Gitega, Burundi. A Cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/234 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Modern contraceptives (MC) refer to any family planning method used to prevent pregnancy. Knowledge about fertility control is an important step towards access to and use of an appropriate contraceptive method in a timely and effective manner. In Burundi, the utilization rate among sexually active adolescents (15–19) is very low despite the reported 11% high fertility rate among these groups.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among 340 female undergraduates at Gitega Universities. The study period was from June 2019 to October 2021. The Leslie Fischer's formula was used to calculate the required sample size.</p> <p>A structured self-administered questionnaire consisting of 15 items was used to collect data relevant to the study. Data was entered and carried out using IBM Statistical packages for Social Science (SPSS) Statistics v23. Descriptive statistics were summarized. A Chi-square test was used to assess the association between different variables</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 340 female students were studied. 68% were aged 25-29years. The majority of the respondent 290 (85.3%) were unmarried. 198(58.2%) were single and 92(27.1%) were engaged. 41.2% were in the second year of study and 139 (40.9%) in year 3 of study. The majority of female students (88.5%) were aware of contraceptives and the majority (67.9%) knew the correct meaning of contraception.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Despite the knowledge of modern contraceptive methods amongst female undergraduates, the utilization of modern contraception is low. The low utilization of FP may be linked to the negative perceptions and beliefs around family planning that is not well-accepted, especially among young people.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>Provide high-quality contraceptive services that help female students overcome the personal and cultural barriers they face by providing care that protects their rights to voluntary, informed, and confidential contracep­tive choice.</p> Désiré Bimenyimana Copyright (c) 2022 Désiré BIMENYIMANA https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.234 Prevalence and Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome among Female University Students in Central Uganda: A Cross-sectional Study https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/216 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is characterized by recurrent psychological, behavioural, and/or physical symptoms occurring before menses and usually resolve by the end of or during menstruation. These symptoms usually affect the women’s quality of life and efficiency. Although over 95% of women worldwide suffer from PMS, in Uganda, little is documented about the prevalence and existence of PMS among students. This study, therefore, sought to determine the prevalence and severity of PMS among female university students in Central Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire between November 2021 and May 2022. The sample of 238 participants was taken from female students in 4 universities who met the inclusion criteria. Sampling was done by proportionate sampling. Primary data was obtained about Premenstrual Syndrome prevalence and severity using modifications of the following tools: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' diagnostic criteria for PMS; the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for PMDD; and the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST). The data was analysed to obtain descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages. A student was considered to be suffering from PMS if they satisfied the DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of PMS. </p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The prevalence of PMS among female University students in central Uganda was found to be 28.3% (60). However, at least 76.9% (163) of the respondents suffered at least one or more symptoms of PMS. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Over a quarter of female university students suffer from Premenstrual syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation</strong></p> <p>There is a need to create awareness as well as mobilize social support so that there is help available to the students who suffer PMS.</p> Elizabeth Atim Florence Nabushawo Okecho Regina Ndagire Catherine Lwanira Nassozi Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Atim, Florence Nabushawo Okecho, Regina Ndagire, Catherine Lwanira Nassozi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.216 The Relationship between Acceptance and Adherence to ARV among Elderly persons. A Case Study of Kakiri Health Centre. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/217 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Background</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations using age 50 and older are defined for older persons. Medication adherence is so critical to the success of HIV management and its comorbidities. However being on new regimens may increase the effectiveness despite suboptimal adherence, past work may demonstrate that in the majority of regimens, patients need to adhere to HIV treatment at the perfect rates possible to counter disease progression, multidrug resistances, and immunologic failures.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">A case study design with both qualitative and quantitative research approaches is used in Kakiri Health Centre which is found in the Central part of Uganda-Kakiri Town Council. The study was conducted among elderly individuals who have lived with HIV and on ARV.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Results</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The majority 140(73%) of the respondents were between 65-74 years, whereas 52(27%) were 75-84 years. This implies that most of the adults in the ART clinic were 65-74 years. There is a positive significant relationship between acceptance and adherence to ARV (r = 0.369, p = 0.001). The findings suggest that people with acceptance tend to have good adherence to ARV. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">In light of the study findings, the study concludes that there was high acceptance and adherence to ARV among elderly persons living with HIV in the case of Kakiri Health Centre HIV Clinic. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendation </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">In line with the first objective, the study recommends that there should be achievable psychological strategies like psycho-education exposed to the psychologists and counselor trainers so that they come up with effective and empirically proven psychological interventions for the families faced with acceptance and adherence to help affected victims in families. This will be helpful in the mitigation of poor adherence and its long-term effect on persons who have been affected by the situation.</span></p> Braos Elisha M. Buthamira Copyright (c) 2022 Braos Elisha M. Buthamira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.217 Physician stress, Medical errors and Remedies: Commentary/Opinion. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/206 Tanmoy Mohanty Sumanyu Tripathy Saswat Samant Saurav Narayan Nanda Ashok Kumar Gachhayat Copyright (c) 2022 Tanmoy Mohanty, Sumanyu Tripathy, Saswat Samant, Saurav Narayan Nanda, Ashok Kumar Gachhayat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 2 2 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.206 Assessment of Psycho-social factors associated with Relapses among Mental Patients. A Cross-sectional study at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/237 <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>WHO (1996) estimated that 12.5% of the global burden of disease is caused by mental and neurological disorders. In a few studies carried out in Uganda mental illnesses seem to claim a big share of medical costs because of relapses.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong></p> <p>The major objective was to assess Psycho-social factors associated with relapses among Mental patients and reduce readmission at the Psychiatric ward, Mbale Regional Referral Hospital. The specific objectives were: to identify demographic characteristics of relapsed mental patients and to determine psychological and social factors associated with relapses among mental patients.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>A descriptive cross-sectional design was employed to target all mentally relapses patients who had improved using consecutive sampling on a sample of 168 respondents. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and analyzed using spss18 software and manually, presented in frequency tables and charts. Data were managed by storage in hard copies and electronically under lock and key.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The study findings revealed that females (51.2%) of young aged 15-24 years had more mental relapses. Most respondents had attained secondary education (41.7%) with many peasants (33.6%) staying single (53.0%). The commonest mental disorder was bipolar mania (25.6%). The majority also accepted that psychologically they had improved (57.1%) with highly expressed emotions and socially medicines were expensive (78.6%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </p> <p>Mental illnesses start early in life, and incapacitate patients through relapses but psychosocial factors can be importantly considered to remedy their plight. </p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Health care providers should strengthen the health education given to mental patients and their caretakers to reduce the vice of relapses. The government put up ring funding to community health programs to improve school mental health important in the prevention of mental disorders.</p> Michael Kabasa Copyright (c) 2022 Michael Kabasa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.237 What Privacy and Confidentiality Mechanisms are used in the Electronic Health Records (Clinical Master and ICT4 M-Power systems)? A design Science Research Approach. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/204 <p><strong>Background:</strong> </p> <p>Patients are required to share information with their doctors to facilitate correct diagnosis and determination of treatment, especially to avoid adverse drug interactions. Despite efforts to fully implement and adopt Electronic Health Records System, there is limited attention to fully secure patients’ details. Issues of privacy and confidentiality still remain a major concern at health facilities mainly in developing countries like Uganda. This study aimed to determine what privacy and confidentiality mechanisms are used in the EHRs (Clinical Master and ICT4 M-Power systems<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: </p> <p>The study used a design science research approach that adopted qualitative methods. Data Flow Diagrams were used to design the desired artifact while the development of the encryption and decryption tool, we used the Hypertext Pre-Processor(PHP) time platform, which is an object-oriented programming language and is a block component that is made up of Cascade Style Sheet (CSS) and HTML(hypertext markup language ) embedded in PHP for it to be fully functional and be able to connect to and run on the server where most of the records and details of the activities are stored in the database. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The respondents pointed at various current mechanisms for privacy and confidentiality that included; user credentials, segregation of roles, Physical access control, international access policies, interlocked interface screens, and training of users.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The inclusion of encryption and decryption features are very vital to enhancing health facilities’ capacity and measures for establishing the privacy and confidentiality of patients’ data.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> </p> <p>The Ministry of Health, Uganda, and implementers of EHR should adopt the encryption and decryption tool for use at the health facilities as the second layer of security to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of patients’ data. </p> Glorious Orishaba David Serunjogi Copyright (c) 2022 Glorious Orishaba , David Serunjogi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 8 8 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.204 A Thematic Review of the Models of ICT Integration in Tracking Malaria Drug Administration in Ugandan Health Units. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/232 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Background</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">This study aimed at reviewing models propounding thematic linkage to system integration of ICT transaction processes that inform tracking administration of malaria drugs in health units in Uganda. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Methods </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The study engaged structural and thematic review approaches for narrative and meta-synthesis of literature analysis to cite, make comparisons, and contrast including criticisms of directed stimulation of information-oriented integration, process-oriented integration, service-oriented Integration, user-oriented integration, and other success drivers of the need for ICT integrations. Comparisons of models by case analysis qualified a structured proposition of development of the model for tracking the administration of Malaria drugs in health units.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Scope </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Integration review was guided by the Enterprise Application Integration solution model, Model Driven Integration Approach, Technology Transfer of Reference, DeLone &amp; McLean IS Success Model among others, focusing on the stimulation of information, processes service and user-oriented integrations, valid ability, technology context, ease of use, scalability, flexibility, and trainability as success drivers. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Findings</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Studies on integration and IC-enabled development reveal that ICT is widely accepted, and its crucial functions increase efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and competitiveness. Failure of integration of ICT in developing countries has a positive relationship with lack of awareness, management commitment, defined ICT based-roles as tools rather than solutions for organizational transformation, responsiveness to vision and mission goals, systemic methods of implementation, system ownership, and poor policy and planning. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Integration of Information Communications Technology in health units is a major driver of information, processes, service, and user-oriented transactions for effective service provision and delivery in Uganda. Technology Context has a negative but linear correlation on ease of use (Intension and Actual) of ICTs (B = - 0.087) and negatively influences the same (β= - 0.050). The intention and actual use of Technology Context in tracking drug administration is influenced by the ability of application of the users. </span></p> E. James Kiggundu Ssegawa Alone Kimwise Copyright (c) 2022 Ssegawa E James Kiggundu, Alone Kimwise https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.232 A Cross-sectional Survey of the Determinants of Maternal Health Services Utilization among Women with Disability in Mbale District, Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/226 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The study aimed to evaluate the determinants of maternal health services utilization among women with disability (WWD) in the Mbale district in Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study approach was a mixed qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional design. The selection of study participants was by snowballing for the quantitative tool and purposively sampling for the Key Informants. A sample size of 189 women with disabilities was used in the study and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22, and qualitative data were subjected to thematic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong></p> <p>The proportion of WWD utilizing MHS was found to be low in the Mbale district with only 17.7% attending four or more antenatal visits. Fear of stigma was the main barrier to the utilization of maternal health services. Health education influenced the utilization of maternal health services. Utilization of maternal health services (MHS) among women with disabilities was associated with socio-economic determinants (secondary level education, spousal support, and monthly income). Finally, there was a significant association between accessibility and the utilization of MHS.</p> <div data-id="p-f94c6f78943a"><strong>Conclusion:</strong></div> <div data-id="p-f94c6f78943a"> </div> <div data-id="p-c289f49a178c">This study revealed that external factors form the main barriers to the utilization of maternal health services among women with disability.</div> <div data-id="p-c289f49a178c"> </div> <div data-id="p-3bdf70165265"><strong>Recommendations:</strong></div> <div data-id="p-3bdf70165265"> </div> <div data-id="p-91e9ff5728a8">Training and equipping health facility staff to be more sensitive to and attend to the unique needs of WWD could improve the experiences of WWD seeking MHS at the health facility. This may reduce their fear of stigmatization thus improving service utilization.</div> <p> </p> Edna, Christine Watera James Matata Jemimah Kyeyune Copyright (c) 2022 Edna, Christine Watera, James Matata, Jemimah Kyeyune https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 19 19 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.226 The Striking Level of Gender Inequality in the Nursing Profession: A Cross-sectional study among Nurses and Student Nurses from selected Hospitals and Nurses Training Institutions in the Northern Cities of Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/218 <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>The level of gender inequality in this study was established at 78.4% implying that out of 10(ten) nurses, at least 8(eight) have experienced unfair treatment because of their gender as a student or a staff. Both male and female nurses face gender disparity among patients/attendants, colleagues, other health professionals, their community, and even family members. Male nurses have remained the minority in the profession bringing a striking numerical gender inequality in the nursing profession. The objective of this study is to determine factors influencing Gender inequality in the Nursing Profession among nurses and student nurses from selected hospitals and nurses training institutions in the Northern Cities of Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study design was used. Quantitative data were obtained from nurses and nursing students in selected study sites in Gulu, Lira, and Arua cities. The raw data was single</p> <p>-entered and analyzed using statistical software version 26 for analysis. Bivariate and univariate analysis methods were used to identify factors associated with gender inequality. Variables with a P-value of &lt;0.05 with a 95% confidence interval were used to declare statistical significance.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>383 participants were interviewed. The level of gender inequality was established at 78.4%. Among the socio-demographic factors, gender (x <sup>2</sup>=10.294, p-0.001), level of education attained (x <sup>2</sup>=6.293, p-0.043), marital status (x <sup>2</sup>=8.296, p-0.004) were significantly associated to gender inequality in the nursing profession.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The prevalence of gender inequality in this study was 78.4%. Men remain the minority in the profession at 26.4%.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations: </strong></p> <p>The study recommends that quick comprehensive combined action is needed from government Ministries, nurses councils; NGOs, and international bodies fighting for gender equality to save the nursing profession from inequality. This action will contribute to the achievement of gender equality for all in all spheres of life.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Lilly Grace Lalam Florence Nabushawo Copyright (c) 2022 Lilly Grace Lalam, Florence Nabushawo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.218 Missed Opportunity for Neonates to Live: A Cross-Sectional study on Utilization of Peri-Natal Death Audits to address the Causes of Peri-Natal Mortality in District Hospitals of East–Central Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/230 <p><strong>Aim: </strong></p> <p>To assess the utilization of PDAs in addressing the avoidable causes of perinatal mortality in the eastern region of Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p> A cross-section design using a mixed method was conducted between 2014-2015 at Iganga, Bugiri, and Kamuli general hospitals in the East-Central region of Uganda. The interviews involved 115 health workers who included Doctors, Nurses/Midwives, Clinical officers, and Laboratory and Theatre staff. These were drawn from four departments including the Maternity ward, Outpatient department, Theatre, and pediatric ward. Hospital top and departmental managers formed the key informants for this study. Annual reports for the period 2009/10-2012/13 were reviewed. In addition, monthly reports for the calendar year 2013 together with patients’ clinical case notes and patients’ registers were also reviewed to determine the magnitude and causes of perinatal mortality. Factors contributing to perinatal death were assessed and categorized into fetal, maternal, and health facility factors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> </p> <p>Results revealed a high and rising perinatal mortality rate of 70/1,000 live births and a decreasing maternal mortality ratio of 363/100,000 live births. Most perinatal deaths were fresh stillbirths 48/88 which occurred during the intrapartum period and the majority of early neonatal death was due to birth asphyxia. None of the health facilities was conducting perinatal death audits and the quality of data used for perinatal death audits was inadequate and was scored poorly. Challenges hindering utilization of perinatal death audits included lack of staff sensitization and training, work overload, lack of motivation, fear of blame and litigation, political interference, and lack of support from the community.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>There was a high prevalence of perinatal deaths in east-central Uganda yet none of the hospitals was conducting perinatal death reviews.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong>:</p> <p>Health workers should be trained on perinatal death audit tools and guidelines. Records departments to revitalize with tools and personnel for effective data management.</p> Christopher Knox Waako Miisa Nanyingi Simon Peter Katongole Christine Atuhairwe Jennipher Mariam Konso Everd Maniple Copyright (c) 2022 Christopher Knox Waako, Miisa Nanyingi, Simon Peter Katongole, Christine Atuhairwe, Jennipher Mariam Konso, Everd Maniple https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 18 18 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.230 A Cross-sectional study to determine the Attitudes of Pregnant Women attending Antenatal Clinic at Lira Regional Referral Hospital towards Physical Activity during Pregnancy. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/242 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Background.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Physical activity during pregnancy provides many health benefits not only to pregnant mothers but also to the fetuses. This study assessed the attitude of pregnant women towards PA in pregnancy among pregnant women attending ANC in Lira Regional Referral Hospital.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Methods.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The cross-sectional study of 152 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic visits in Lira Regional referral Hospital, northern Uganda. Data were obtained on socio-demographic characteristics of mothers’ attitudes towards PA in pregnancy.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Results.</span></strong><em><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></em></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">We found that 80% of pregnant mothers had a positive attitude toward physical activity during pregnancy. The attitude was associated with marital status (p=0.049), the number of children they had to care for, a busy schedule, fear of PA, and lack of information were the principal reasons not to do Physical Activity.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion.</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">The majority of women (80%) had a positive attitude toward PA during pregnancy</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendations. </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Based on the findings that some small percentages had a negative attitude towards PA in pregnancy, health educators should be encouraged to avail the information to the community members, this will enable the community to develop good feelings towards antenatal exercises. Pregnant women should be encouraged to form exercise groups in their communities so they provide moral support for each other. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Based on findings from other studies that there is a low practice of PA in pregnancy, further studies should be done in Uganda to come up with the prevalence of PA during pregnancy in Uganda</span>.</p> Felex Okori Lawrence Opio Munga Robert Otim James Kiboko Edward Atim Charles Patrick Olupot Copyright (c) 2022 Felex Okori, Lawrence Opio Munga, Robert Otim , James Kiboko, Edward Atim, Charles Patrick Olupot https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.242 Competency of Midwives in Assisting Vaginal Breech Births and associated factors: A Cross-sectional study in Lower Level Health Facilities of Hoima District, Uganda. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/243 <p><strong>Objectives<em>:</em></strong> </p> <p>To assess midwives’ competencies in the application of the manoeuvers for a vaginal frank breech delivery and identify factors associated with midwives’ competency in delivering a vaginal frank breech.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><em>:</em> </p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted among 143 practicing midwives who were recruited consecutively. A 30-item checklist was used to assess the midwives’ competence in the application of Pinard, Loveset’s, and Mauriceau Smellie Viet manoeuvers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the associated factors. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze midwives’ competence. Crude Odds Ratios and their 95% confidence intervals measured the association.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:</p> <p>87.4% of midwives knew and mentioned a manoeuvre. Slightly half of 72(50.4%) study participants, with a mean score of 12.3 (SD: 2.7), were competent. Competence scores for Pinard, Loveset’s, and Mauriceau Smelie Viet manoeuvres were 69.2%, 44.1%, and 30.8% respectively. Midwives who could mention any manoeuvre were 11 times more likely to be competent (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 11.79, 95% CI: 2.23-58.35, P: 0.002). Midwives who felt confident were 5 times more likely to be competent (AOR: 5.95, 95% CI: 1. 23-28.80, P: 0.026). </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </p> <p>Overall midwives’ competence was average. The majority were competent with the application of Pinard manoeuvre. Lovset and Mauricea Smelie Viet had below-average scores. The significantly associated factors were being able to mention any type of the manoeuvres, and reporting a feeling of confidence. These findings highlight the need for in-service vaginal breech births training, and a hands-on vaginal breech births practice to improve competence.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>The health care system should standardize the quality of midwifery practice as stated by the global standard of midwifery practice. Standard guidelines and standard operating procedures should be developed to guide the care practices in health units. </p> Prossy Nandawula Ayebare Elizabeth Mathew Nyashanu Michelle Telfer Scovia Nalugo Mbalinda Copyright (c) 2022 Prossy Nandawula, Ayebare Elizabeth , Mathew Nyashanu , Michelle Telfer , Scovia Nalugo Mbalinda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 21 21 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.243 An Analytical study to determine the Prevalence and Factors associated with Late first Antenatal Care Visit among Pregnant Women at Mukono General Hospital, Mukono District. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/224 <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>A study was carried out to determine the prevalence and factors associated with late first antenatal care visits among pregnant women at Mukono General Hospital, Mukono District.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study design was descriptive and cross-sectional and it employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. A sample of 60 respondents was selected using a purposive sampling procedure and an interview guide was used to collect data. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The proportion of pregnant mothers who timely initiated ANC visits<strong> </strong>was 40 (66.7%) attended the first ANC visit between 4 – 6 months of pregnancy, 40 (66.7%) had attended ANC once during the current transition, 24 (40%) reported lack of awareness/knowledge as a reason for failing to timely initiate ANC visits, followed by 16 (26.7%) who reported lack of support, 12 (20%) reported that they did not feel the need to attend early. Respondents also faced various maternal factors as 40 (66.7%) respondents reported that they did not attend ANC in the last pregnancy, 50 (83.3%) did not receive advice before starting ANC visits, 60 (100%) did not have other means of testing current pregnancy, 40 (66.7%) reported not having adequate knowledge about ANC<strong> </strong>services, 40 (66.7%) reported that they sometimes had to get their husband`s approval to start ANC visits, 42 (70%) rated the previous experiences of services utilization as good.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Respondents faced various socio-demographic and maternal factors which have led to a low proportion of mothers attending the 1st ANC visit in the first semester as recommended.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Including improving efficiency and reducing waiting time, improving customer care, more support, and health education about ANC among others.</p> Moses Musitwa Copyright (c) 2022 Moses Musitwa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 22 22 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.224 A Cross-sectional to determine how Knowledgeable pregnant Women attending Antenatal Care at Lira Regional Referral Hospital are regarding the benefits and contraindications of Physical Activity during Pregnancy. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/241 <p><strong>Background.</strong> </p> <p>Physical activity during pregnancy provides many health benefits not only to pregnant mothers but also to the fetuses. Adequate knowledge among pregnant mothers is vital to enhance positive attitudes. This study assessed knowledge of pregnant women on PA in pregnancy among pregnant women attending ANC in Lira Regional Referral Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. </p> <p>The cross-sectional study of 152 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic visits in Lira Regional referral Hospital, northern Uganda. Data were obtained on socio-demographic characteristics of mothers, knowledge, and attitude towards PA in pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong><em> </em></p> <p>Decreasing the risk of swelling of extremities (65%), back pain (73%), and high blood pressure (80%), and promoting a better ability to cope with labor and delivery (72%) were the most commonly known benefits of PA in pregnancy<em> and </em>vaginal bleeding (80%), chest pain (70%), difficulty in breathing (77%), abdominal pain (72%), premature labor (73%), muscle weakness and migraine headache (73%) were perceived contraindications of physical activity during pregnancy. 46% had adequate overall knowledge of PA during pregnancy. The knowledge of women was influenced by gestational age (p=0.007) and level of education (p=0.014). </p> <p><strong>Conclusion.</strong> </p> <p>The majority of women demonstrated inadequate knowledge of physical activity during pregnancy. Mothers had a fair knowledge of the benefit, but the majority had minimal information about the contraindication and when to start and stop physical activity when they get pregnant.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation</strong></p> <p>Based on the findings, women in this study didn’t have comprehensive knowledge about PA during pregnancy, health care providers should be empowered to counsel healthy and fit pregnant women with comprehensive, evidence-based prenatal exercise guidelines on the safety of involvement in PA during pregnancy. </p> Felex Okori Copyright (c) 2022 Felex Okori https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.241 The Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Predisposing Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kawolo General Hospital. A Cross-sectional Descriptive Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/205 <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Globally, the prevalence of Hyperglycemia first detected in pregnancy (Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) varies from 1 - 28 %. 16.2 % of women have some form of hyperglycemia, of which GDM is about 85.1%. 87.6% of GDM accounts are in low- and middle-income countries. Hyperglycemia in pregnancy is estimated to affect 21.4 million (16.9%) live births, with GDM accounting for 16% of these cases. In Kawolo General Hospital, pregnant women aren’t screened for blood glucose during antenatal visits, thus the need and relevance of investigating GDM, according to WHO recommendations.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A total of 334 participants were recruited by systematic random sampling. Blood and urine samples were collected. RBS, OGTT, and urine glucose tests were done. Data were analyzed using STATA version 13 to determine the prevalence and association between the risk factors of GDM among the respondents.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The study revealed the prevalence of GDM as 4.5%. Hypertension and elevated blood pressure were significantly associated with GDM, with p values of 0.00 and 0.01 respectively among women of various ages, gravida, and trimester. The majority of the participants were aged 18 to 25 years (58.7%). over 86.5% were married. 56.9% had secondary education. (38.9%) were unemployed. (34.4%) were Catholics. (46.1%) had normal body mass index with an average body weight of 65 kg and 160cm (height). 70.6% had normal blood pressure. 21.56% had elevated blood pressure. (56.6%) had their protein uptake. Vitamins (100%) were high, moderate for carbohydrates (70.1%), and 96.4% low for fats.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The prevalence and associated factors among pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinic were revealed, and thus the need for screening and treatment of both high blood pressure and high blood glucose levels.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>There’s a need to advise and sensitize them to complete all the antenatal visits and create awareness among pregnant women.</p> Comfort Ochieng Kezia Kalembe Collins Mujjuzi Anna Nakhabi Isaac Kakinda Enoch Muwanguzi Yona Mbalibulha Copyright (c) 2022 Isaac Kakinda, Comfort Ochieng, Kezia Kalembe, Collins Mujjuzi, Anna Nakhabi, Isaac Kakinda, Enoch Muwanguzi, Yona Mbalibulha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.205 Existing Human factors Risks in Eastern Africa Aviation Operation: Focus on skill Risks and Aeromedical factors. A Cross-sectional Study. https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/235 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Background:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Aviation safety in the Africa region has continued to be a concern for the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and the industry as a whole. ICAO’s 2012 accident statistics show that Africa had an accident rate of 5.3 per one million departures with 3% of the worldwide traffic distribution. A study set out to examine the existing human factors risks in the region’s aviation operation with a particular focus on skill and aeromedical risks exist in the Eastern African region.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">A cross-sectional study research design was used with quantitative methods of data collection applied; perceptual information was collected by the use of a survey.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Results:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Four categories of variables investigated skills required for the job and had a positive moderately strong correlation with values between 0.4-0.6 and were statistically significant with p ˂0.05. Another four had a weak positive correlation which is less than 0.4. Eleven out of fifteen categories of the aeromedical variables had a positive moderately strong correlation with values between 0.4-0.6. Four had a weak positive correlation which was less than 0.4. Results did show current skill-related risks in public safety, operations monitoring, quality control, troubleshooting, design and telecommunications, and public safety. Most of the above skills had a direct correlation with each other. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusions:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Aeromedical factors affecting performance included fitness and health, stress, time pressure, and deadlines, sleep-related issues, fatigue, cigarette smoking, alcohol, pain, and nervousness.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendations:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="color: #0e101a;">There is a need for redefining human factors risks in Eastern Africa and incorporating them in the curriculum at all levels to ensure that individuals are capable of functioning effectively and safely in a range of situations and environments continuous as well as aeromedical assessment should be designed to fully capture the existing skill related and aeromedical risks in the region and improve the region’s safety record.</span></p> Florence Nassimbwa Charles K. Twesigye Santa M. Asio Copyright (c) 2022 Florence Nassimbwa, Charles K.Twesigye, Santa M. Asio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 13 13 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.235 Community Factors associated with Initiation to HPV Vaccination among Adolescent Girls aged 9 to 17 years in Eastern Uganda. A Cross-sectional Study https://sjhresearchafrica.org/index.php/public-html/article/view/127 <p><strong>Background </strong></p> <p>Initiation to the HPV vaccine is critical in the prevention of cervical cancer and failure to receive vaccines as recommended may aggravate the disease burden on the female population. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that initiation to HPV vaccination is still very low in Mbale district, Uganda, and sub-Saharan Africa at large. Hence this study was conducted to document the Community factors associated with the Initiation of HPV Vaccination among Adolescent girls aged 9 to 17 years in Eastern Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study adopted a population-based cross-sectional study design in which questionnaires were used in the data collection process. The data were analyzed in STATA. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Family support and the caretaker’s average monthly income range were the factors that had a significant association with the initiation of HPV. The rest of the community factors did not show a significant association with initiation to HPV vaccination as they had p-values </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Community factors play a role in influencing caretakers towards initiation to HPV vaccination when assessed in isolation. Also, factors significantly influence the caretaker’s decision to initiate their adolescent girls to HPV vaccination. </p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>Community health inspectors should adopt the role of sensitization about HPV vaccination against cervical cancer in adolescent girls within the recommended age range of 9 to 14 years as they perform their community health inspection roles. </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Fred Wangwa Copyright (c) 2022 Fred Wangwa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 9 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i9.127