Applying the Health Belief Model on the Perception and attitude towards Diabetes Mellitus among public secondary school students in Southern Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Study.
Perception and attitude towards diabetes mellitus among students
Keywords:Adolescent, Diabetes Mellitus, Health Belief Model, Perception, Schools, Students
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism which has become a 21st-century pandemic. According to the International Diabetes Federation, the incidence and prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents (10-19 years) in Africa are steadily rising. Students in post-primary schools constitute a large part of this population where poor perception and attitude towards DM prevention have been reported. The purpose of the study was to investigate the perception of DM using the Health Belief Model (HBM) among public secondary school students in Delta State, Nigeria.
The study adopted a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted in November 2019 and February 2022 in Ogbe secondary school Effurun and Nana College Warri. A simple random sampling technique was utilized to select 700 students. The data was gathered using a three-part structured questionnaire A-C. Section A comprises demographic characteristics; B contains perception questions and C contains questions on attitude towards DM. The Chi-Square test was used to analyze the association between perception variables and attitude toward DM at a P<0.05 level of significance.
Respondents' average age was 14.99±1.86 years and 423(60.4%) were females. The majority of participants 621(88.7%) have heard of DM and 88(14.2%) have relatives with DM. The majority of responders exhibited poor perceived susceptibility 499(80.4%), severity 406(65.4%), barriers 484(77.9%), and attitude 443(71.3%) towards DM management and prevention. However, 397(63.9%) exhibited good perceived benefits of DM prevention. Age (χ2=12.91, ρ=0.002), Sex (χ2=28.45, ρ=0.000) Perceived susceptibility (χ2=173.83, ρ=0.000), Perceived severity (χ2=329.89, ρ=0.000) and Perceived barriers (χ2=298.51, ρ=0.000) were significantly associated with attitude at P<0.05.
The findings showed poor perception and attitude towards DM management and prevention among the study respondents. DM prevention intervention targeting the HBM constructs should be implemented in secondary schools to improve the knowledge, perception, and attitude towards DM among in-school adolescents.
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Copyright (c) 2022 OTOVWE AGOFURE, Edema-Eyen Oritseje, HonourGod Oghenerume
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