Student's Journal of Health Research Africa <p>Student’s Journal of Health Research Africa (SJHR-Africa) is an open-access journal that includes all branches of Medicine and health research to narrow the knowledge gap in Africa, (<strong>ISSN 2709-9997). </strong> The journal is peer-reviewed and promotes research on the African continent by accepting original research ideas from African students who are doing research.</p> <p>We are the journal for African students that believes in sharing information for free. Publishing a total of 39 journals, SJHR-Africa is here to meet the needs of an African student. We believe that when we integrate Knowledge from different academic discipline, Africa will be a complete eco-system with adequate scholarly materials to bridge the knowledge gap.</p> <p>As the world becomes more integrated, our scope extends to biological sciences, Vocational studies that have an impact on health such as Agriculture. Informational technology, Environmental science, Business studies, and planning have also shown to influence Health. The journal brings together individual specialties from different fields into a dynamic academic mix. We intended to enhance communication among health system researchers and administrators, policy and decision-makers, legislators, practitioners, educators, students, and other types of professionals in the research that might have an effect on the healthcare delivery systems.</p> en-US (Editorial Office) (David Serunjogi) Sat, 06 Mar 2021 10:02:44 +0300 OJS 60 Assessment of Factors Affecting Attendance of Antenatal Care in Kagote Health Center III, Kabarole District, Uganda <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Antenatal care is generally thought to be an effective method of improving outcomes in pregnant women and their babies, although many specific Antenatal Care practices have not been subject to rigorous evaluation</p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><strong>Methodology:</strong> </span></p> <p>A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Kagote HCIII aimed at assessing the factors affecting ANC attendance in the Kabarole district. Using a convenience sampling method, Kagote HCIII was chosen by the random sampling method. A sample of 100 respondents was interviewed. Questionnaires were used to obtain data from the individuals and these were in form of closed and open-ended questions.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The majority of the respondents 92(92%) used ANC information in subsequent pregnancies. 48(48%) said that multiparous women did not need to attend ANC if they were healthy while 12% were not sure. Challenges include long distance from the ANC clinic 32(13%), harsh health service providers 8(3%), lack enough support from husbands 22(9%), segregation and discrimination 12(5%), negative attitude towards ANC 16(7%), high transport costs 37(15.4%), lack of enough money 43(18%), lack of enough time 10(4%), too much workload at home 16(7%), long waiting time 20(8.3%), unavailability of some drugs at times 24(10%).</p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><strong>Conclusion and recommendation: </strong></span></p> <p>The factors affecting ANC attendance in Kagote HCIII are; age, occupation, education level, marital status, address, the number of health workers, their cadre, skill, authority, knowledge, nature, the services they and how they offer them, availability of incentives like drugs, multiparity, the order of pregnancy and the challenges mentioned above. </p> <p>There is a need for the MOH to continue sensitizing people about the importance of ANC attendance, outreaches by the health facility to the community to offer the service and encourage attendance, a collaboration between the health facility and the village health team continued health education of women of reproductive age about ANC and its attendance. </p> Margaret Apiso Copyright (c) 2020 MARGARET APISO Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Among Pregnant Mothers Aged 18 – 49 Years Attending Antenatal Clinic At Mukono Health Centre IV. <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>The HIV/AIDS epidemic is a serious threat to social and economic development around the world. Uganda’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate has shot up from 6.4% in 2005 to 7.3% whereas in pregnant mothers of all ages is at 6.1%. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Mukono district in Uganda worries leaders, and according to the local newspaper, the general prevalence in this area is said to be 9%. No study has documented the prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Mukono Health centre IV.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>The study took place at Mukono HCIV which is found in Mukono municipal council Mukono district on Kampala - Jinja road. The design was cross-sectional using both quantitative and qualitative methods where the pregnant mothers between the ages 18-49yrs were involved in the study at the antenatal clinic using the methods that are provided for their inclusion and exclusion study purposes. The data was summarized in form of bar graphs, pie charts, and tables using Microsoft excel program and SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The general prevalence of HIV/AIDS among pregnant women who sought ANC in Mukono Health Centre IV was 7 %. The research indicated that the majority of the pregnant women n=88, were in the age group of 25-31 years 49 (55.7%), 31(35.2%) had attained a secondary level of education while 30(34.1%) had attained a tertiary level of education.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation</strong>:</p> <p>Positive mothers should get access to psychological support hence enhancing the utilization of VCT by the mothers. Men's involvement is necessary and they need to be encouraged and sensitized from the communities to accompany their partners to the clinic and attend counselling sessions, this is to help equip them both with the necessary information on PMTCT. </p> Ramadhan Ndhego Copyright (c) 2021 Ramadhan Ndhego Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Knowledge and Practices of Post Cesarean Section Mothers Towards Self-Care After Delivery at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>It is recommended to all mothers to undergo post-cesarean section self-care after delivery up to six weeks. However, many mothers return to Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital as a result of getting some complications related to cesarean section. The reasons why these mothers develop these complications are not clear and possible other practices performed by delivered mothers to solve their post-delivery challenges are not yet documented.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>The design of this study was a descriptive cross-sectional study design and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from the participants. Data were collected from 150 mothers admitted to the Maternity ward of Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital who formed the inclusion criteria and accepted to participate in the study. Data was captured using Microsoft excel and analyzed using Statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The response rate in this study was 100%. The knowledge of post-cesarean section self-care among postpartum women at MRRH in Mbarara was poor as the majority of the participants 90(60%) reported to have never heard about Post Cesarean self-care while only 60 (40%) reported having ever heard about Post Cesarean self-care and no postpartum woman was fully aware of all the aspects of PCS and only 26% could talk of more than 2 aspects of the PCS. The findings of the study also revealed that 22% (33) of the postpartum women don't perform PCS at all. This shows a low practice of PCS among postpartum women.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Generally, in this study, the knowledge of post-cesarean section self-care among postpartum women at MRRH in Mbarara was poor, suggesting that these postpartum women are unaware of the value of this personal health promotion tool.</p> Solomon Atuhaire Copyright (c) 2021 Solomon Atuhaire Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Attitudes of Nursing and Medical Students towards Patient Care on Psychiatric Ward During Clinical Rotation at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital. <p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p> <p>During psychiatry, clinical rotation, nursing, and medical students care for mentally ill patients who have abnormal thoughts, behaviors, perceptions, and relationships with others is very important. This makes patient care on the psychiatric ward very special and the attitudes towards patient care on the ward very key to providing quality care.</p> <p><strong>Study purpose: </strong></p> <p>This study sought to explore the attitudes of nursing and medical students towards patient care in the psychiatric ward during clinical rotation.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>:</p> <p>A qualitative descriptive design was employed. The study involved 9 fourth-year nursing students and 4 fifth and 2 fourth-year medical students who were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected using face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:</p> <p>Three themes emerged from 12 categories describing attitudes of nursing and medical students towards patient care on the psychiatric ward during clinical rotation. The emergent themes were positive attitudes, negative attitudes, and uncertainty of attitudes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>In conclusion, these qualitative findings suggest that nursing and medical students held both positive and negative attitudes towards patient care on the psychiatric ward during clinical rotation. In some participants the attitudes were uncertain.</p> Angella Namulema Copyright (c) 2021 ANGELLA NAMULEMA Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Knowledge Attitude and Practices Towards the Use of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets Among Pregnant Women in Lukolo Health Center III Jinja District. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>There are an estimated 25 million pregnancies in sub-Saharan Africa at risk of malaria, the consequences of which can be serious for both mother and fetus in terms of morbidity and mortality. The Government of Uganda (GOU) through the Ministry of Health (MOH) and implementing partners like the Global Fund and the Roll Back Malaria initiative were compelled to try to maximize the use of Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets (ITNs) to mitigate the effects of malaria among vulnerable populations.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used which involved both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and it involved 126 (one hundred twenty-six) respondents using self-administered questionnaires. Data collected was thematically presented and analyzed using descriptive frequencies and percentages using Microsoft excel.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>This study showed that pregnant mothers' knowledge of the use of insecticide-treated nets was good. However, the respondents' attitude towards the use of Insecticide-treated nets was poor/ negative as up-to 60% of them felt putting on the mosquito net was inconveniencing, 67% didn't think that it was important to sleep under an ITN when one had taken Fansidar at ANC. Also, the practice of pregnant mothers towards the use of ITNs was not good too as only (43%) of the mothers had ITNs. A big number (71%) couldn't afford them, and (10%) believed they didn't need them. Important to note too, most (57%) mothers continued to use ITNS even when they had holes as, (3%) used it for other things like catching white ants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and recommendations:</strong></p> <p>The majority of the pregnant mothers' knowledge of the use of insecticide-treated nets was good as mothers could identify that malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. The government, through the Ministry of Health, should intensify the free distribution of nets by conducting frequent mass distribution campaigns in the country.</p> Arthur Muwoya Copyright (c) 2021 ARTHUR MUWOYA Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Medical Students' Perception of Community-Based Education Research and Services (COBERS) In Mbarara University of Science and Technology. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The success of the Community Based Education Research and services (COBERS) in Mbarara University of Science and Technology plays a fundamental role in improving the community's health, education, and economics by sharing knowledge obtained from projects and increases the student's interest and participation in research while fulfilling the mission and vision of the university. The Student's perception of the Program contributes to compliance by Students to work in rural areas upon graduation, increases trust from communities, enhances the behavioral change and decreases costs to health departments, and facilitates development and implementation of more effective public health interventions. Most published studies reporting students' perceptions of COBERS are mainly from the developed world and only a few in Africa including Uganda. This report explored the overall Students Perceptions of COBERS at Mbarara University of Science and Technology.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>A qualitative descriptive design was employed. The study involved thirty-three Medical students who were selected by purposive sampling. Data was collected using focused group discussions and analyzed manually to generate themes and subthemes.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Four themes emerged from eighteen categories describing Medical Students Perception of COBERS: An opportunity for interactions, the program is challenging, Attainment of skills, and an opportunity for interactions. These Qualitative findings reveal mixed feelings about COBERS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>In conclusion, the four themes; An opportunity for interactions, the program is challenging, attainment of skills, an opportunity for translating theory to practice that emerged from eighteen categories were mostly expressions of perceptions of COBERS. These qualitative findings suggest that students' acceptance of COBERS as a requirement for Medical Schools is based on their perception of the expected outcome and the perceived benefits of their contribution to the community. These findings were from five focused group discussions where participants participated voluntarily in the study.</p> Ritah Naali Copyright (c) 2021 RITAH NAALI Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Nursing and Medical Students’ Perceptions of the Rehabilitation Medicine Course Unit: A Case Study of Mbarara University of Science and Technology. <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine is a medical specialty concerned with the improvement of functioning through diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, reduction of impairment, and preventing and treatment of complications. In an era of an increasing number of debilitating and disabling conditions arises the need for exposure of medical students to a goal of reducing the impact of disabling conditions and socially integrating the individuals suffering from the after-effects of these diseases. However, for the future development of this specialty, there is a need to explore students' attitudes and perceptions.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>:</p> <p>A qualitative descriptive design was employed in the study. The purposive sampling method was used to recruit 18 participants who had done the Rehabilitation Medicine course unit in the year 2019/2020. Data was collected using an interview guide. Data analysis was carried out using content analysis basing on existing themes.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Basing on already existent themes which included:- Resources for Rehabilitation Medicine, Activities are done during Rehabilitation Medicine Training, Support provided during Rehabilitation Medicine Training and Evaluation carried out during Rehabilitation Medicine, the study revealed students' report about the reading resources that were not well provided, appreciated the activities done during training and commended the lecturers for the optimum support rendered to them during training. They however expressed disagreement with the evaluation method of post-lecture tests as they reported they were conducted with bias and only targeted students that understand information firsthand from the lecture in class.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation: </strong></p> <p>The study found out that students' perceptions towards rehabilitation Medicine are generally positive. Whereas the teaching resources were considered sufficient, access to reading materials is considered difficult. </p> Lillian Nabacwa Copyright (c) 2021 Lillian Nabacwa Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Knowledge and Attitude of HIV Counselling and Testing among Males Aged 18-30 Years in Kyeizooba Community, Bushenyi District. <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>In 2018, an estimated 1.4 million people were living with HIV, and an estimated 23,000 Ugandans died of AIDS-related illnesses. As of 2018, the estimated HIV prevalence among adults (aged 15 to 49) stood at 5.7 %. HIV testing is often used as an umbrella term to refer to both testing and counseling services. The use of HIV testing and counseling is closely related to education level, fear to disclose results, stigma, and discrimination towards HIV/AIDs patients. In the Kyeizooba sub-county, there is a low turn up for HCT services among males aged 18-30 years compared to females of the same age and the reasons behind the cause are missing. </p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong></p> <p>This was a cross-sectional study design that used, convenient sampling to get the needed participants. The sample size was determined by Kish &amp;Lesley (1965) method of sample estimation. All participants that met the inclusion criteria were 78. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data and analyzed using SPSS 20.0. Permission was sought from the nursing department, faculty research committee from MUST, and further permission from DHO.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>Most participants were married (37.2%), secondary level (44.9%), and unemployed youth (42.3%). Most of the participants scored between 5-7 as moderate knowledge.</p> <p>Most of the participants scored below 22.5 with an average score of 16.6 (negative attitude) others agreed with blood loss during testing, stress, stigma, and discrimination. Most had never tested 68%, preferred health facility48.7% as a testing site.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Most of the participants had moderate knowledge which is attributed to education level and most had a negative attitude towards HCT.</p> Blutus Niwamanya Copyright (c) 2021 BLUTUS NIWAMANYA Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Barriers to Blood Donation Among Mbarara University of Science and Technology Students. <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong></p> <p>Blood donation is the voluntary withdrawal of blood from an individual, after undergoing some medical screening in order to ensure the safety of both the donor and the recipient. Blood donation is crucial and indispensable in the medical process of saving lives. Globally, 112.5 million blood donations were made in 180 countries in 2013. Uganda needs at least 340,000 units of safe blood annually, but usually, only 200,000 units are collected yearly. Although massive blood donation campaigns are carried out to obtain blood, there is still more demand for blood within hospitals. Student populations are considered healthy, active, and receptive, thus, regarded as potential blood donors. This study sought to explore the barriers to blood donation among MUST students.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>A qualitative descriptive design was used in this study. A purposive sampling method was used to select respondents from different faculties at MUST. Four FGDs were employed in the study and data were collected using a focus group discussion guide. Inductive content analysis was used to analyze data.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The study revealed different barriers to blood donation among students. Three broad themes were generated from the analysis; personal barriers related to blood donation<strong>, s</strong>ocio-cultural variations affecting blood donation, and the barriers concerning the blood donation process. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendations:</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong>Although participants reported willingness to donate blood, it was found to be affected by barriers ranging from individuals related to the system/process in which blood is collected. Addressing these barriers may improve blood donation by MUST students. </p> Henry Karugaba, Hanifah Nantongo Copyright (c) 2021 HENRY KARUGABA, Hanifah Nantongo Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Isolation of Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus in Surface Water Sources in Katabi Subcounty, Wakiso District. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Unsafe water, inadequate sanitation, and insufficient hygiene account for an estimated 9.1 percent of the global burden of disease and 6.3 percent of all deaths. This study aimed to isolate&nbsp;<em>Escherichia coli</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>staphylococcus aureus</em>&nbsp;in surface water sources in Katabi Subcounty, Wakiso District. The specific objectives were to isolate&nbsp;<em>E.coli</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>&nbsp;in water sources in the Katabi sub-county and to determine the physico-chemical parameters of the water sources.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional and snowball sampling method was applied while collecting water samples from the wells, boreholes, and other groundwater in the selected areas of Wakiso District (Katabi division, and Kajjasi division).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;A total of 34 (n=34) water samples were obtained including borehole water 61.8% (n1=21/34), spring water 11.8% (n2=4/34) and open well water 26.4% (n3=9/34). Freshwater samples were directly analyzed from the water source for pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, then different means of physic-chemical parameters were recorded, Mean temperature for open well water was 23.5°C±1.092, pH=5.21±0.432, and dissolved oxygen was 4.075±1. 555). The mean temperature for spring water was 22.98°C±0.907, pH=5.7± 0.781, and dissolved oxygen was 4.075±1.555. For borehole water, the mean temperature was 22.9°C±1.339, pH=5.7±1.441, and dissolved oxygen was 4.9±1.549). A total of 10 samples fermented MSA after overnight incubation at 37°C changing the media color from pink to yellow, borehole water samples were 60% (6), spring water samples were 20% (2) and open well water samples were 20% (2). Also<em>, S. saprophyticus</em>&nbsp;76.9% (10) and<em>&nbsp;S.epidermidis&nbsp;</em>23.1% (3) were identified.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation: </strong></p> <p>All the samples analyzed did not show growth of&nbsp;<em>E.coli</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>S.aureus</em>&nbsp;but had other organisms including&nbsp;<em>S.saprophyticus</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>S.epidermidis</em>&nbsp;which could be harmful to human health when consumed.</p> <p>Further investigation of possible pathogenic organisms that are present in drinking water under the acidic pH should be done.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Habert Mabonga Copyright (c) 2020 Habert Mabonga Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Potential Role of Door Handles in the Spread of Drug Resistant Bacteria in Makerere University. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The transmission of diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria is still a threat. One of the potential sources of bacterial diseases is the door handles. This study aimed at isolating, identifying bacteria, determining total bacterial load, and determining antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria obtained from door handles in Makerere university.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p> A total of 60 samples randomly scattered within the university were swabbed and analyzed for bacterial growth. Samples were inoculated on MacConkey and blood agar and then incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours. All sample isolates were sub cultured and identified based on macro and micromorphology, and standard biochemical tests. The establishment of the total bacterial load was done using the standard plate count method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using the disc diffusion method on Muller Hilton agar.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The following bacterial species and genera were obtained from door handles, <em>staphylococcus aureus</em> (30.8%), Coagulase-negative <em>staphylococcus</em> (12.0%), <em>Streptococcus </em>species (24.2%), <em>Escherichia coli</em> (7.7%), <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (14.3%), <em>bacilli </em>species (11.0%). The study showed that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of <em>bacilli </em>species (p= 0.017) and <em>E. coli </em>(p= 0.015) among the study group. The results from total bacterial count indicated that toilet door handles had the highest bacterial load compared to office door handles and classrooms. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of isolates showed that all bacteria were resistant and intermediately resistant to commonly used antibiotics except for <em>Escherichia coli</em> that was susceptible to amoxicillin</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendations:</strong></p> <p>The study reveals that door handles are a considerable source of pathogenic bacteria thus play a major role in the transmission of diseases caused by such bacteria. Further studies could be done and different study groups could be included for example routinely opened doors and the doors which are not routinely opened.</p> Immaculate Nabawanuka Copyright (c) 2020 Immaculate Nabawanuka Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 In Vitro Anti-Microbial Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Justicia flava and Tephrosia vogelii that grows in Uganda. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Medicinal plants and plant-derived medicines are increasingly becoming popular in modern society as natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals due to increased resistance to drugs by microbes. There is a need to search for new active compounds to validate the medicines used traditionally. The study was carried out on the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of <em>Justicia</em> f<em>lava</em> and <em>Tephrosia</em> <em>vogeli,</em> to determine their antimicrobial and phytochemical profiles. </p> <p><strong>Method</strong></p> <p>The agar well diffusion method using Mueller Hinton agar plates, to determine the diameters of the antibacterial inhibition zones of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts on standard bacterial strains of <em>Staphylococcus </em><em>aureus</em>, P<em>seudomonas aeruginosa</em>, and Salmonella <em>spp</em> was conducted<em>.</em> </p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Ethanol extract of Justicia flava showed activity against S. <em>aureus</em> and P. <em>aeruginosa</em> and no activity on <em>Salmonella</em> spp. </p> <p>The aqueous extract had no activity on any of the three bacteria. However, both the aqueous and ethanol extract of T. <em>vogelii</em> showed activity on the test microbes used, and the highest activity was seen with <em>Salmonella</em> spp. For minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), J. <em>flava</em>, P<em>. aeruginosa</em> had the highest value of 500mg/ml and S. <em>aureus</em> showed the lowest value of 250mg/ml whereas, with the aqueous extract of <em>T. vogelii, P. aeruginosa</em> showed the highest MIC value of 165mg/ml and <em>Salmonella</em> <em>spp</em> the lowest of 41.25mg/ml. However, Salmonella showed a high value (300mg/ml) with the ethanol extract and <em>S. aureus</em> the lowest (75mg/ml). The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, terpenoids, tannins, phenolics, and reducing sugars.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendations:</strong> </p> <p>This study showed that <em>Justicia flava</em> and <em>Tephrosia vogelii</em> possess antimicrobial activity and are therefore potential candidates for combating bacterial infections, especially those accelerated by S. <em>aureus</em>, P<em>. aeruginosa</em>, and <em>Salmonella species</em>.</p> <p> </p> George Alfred Masete Copyright (c) 2021 GEORGE ALFRED MASETE Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Prevalence of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis and its Associated factors among Patients at Lubaga Hospital. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality resulting in an estimated 8.8 million incident cases and 1.4 million deaths Up to 92% of the TB cases occur in low and middle-income countries with the sub-Saharan Africa region hosting nine of the highest TB incidence countries globally Uganda is ranked 16th among the 22 high burden countries. It is estimated that nearly 60,000 MDR- TB cases occur annually in the sub-Saharan region and these comprise 14% of the global burden of TB. In Uganda West Nile, the general prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is reported to be 20.2% and MDR-TB is 2.7%</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional descriptive study about the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis and its associated factors among patients was conducted on 384 TB patients at Lubaga hospital. The patients were selected by simple random sampling and data was collected by the use of a structured questionnaire and analysis were done using SPSS version 17.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The prevalence of rifampicin resistance according to this study's findings was 10%. The predisposing factors to rifampicin resistance were cigarette smoking (P-Value = 0.001), history of prolonged stay with a TB infected patient, (P-Value = 0.001), and history of a previously treated episode of TB among the study respondents (P-Value = 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendations</strong></p> <p>The government of Uganda needs to carry out more intensified mass sensitization of people about the dangers of cigarette smoking, particularly to HIV infected individuals. In the same line of sensitization, people need to be continuously reminded by the ministry of health about the signs and symptoms of TB so that community members can identify suspects and refer them for specialized diagnosis and management such that delayed detection of the disease is minimized which will also reduce on rifampicin resistance.</p> <p> </p> Winnie Nakiboneka Copyright (c) 2020 Winnie Nakiboneka Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Possible Pathogenic Bacteria Present on Stumps of Amputees Applying Prostheses: A Case of Mulago National Referral Hospital, Uganda. <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The number of amputees using prostheses is decreasing, and the victims complain that prostheses make stumps itchy and cause sores and they thus opt to go without artificial limbs. This has led to increased joblessness among persons with orthopedic disabilities. This research, therefore, sought to determine whether the prostheses increase the number of species of bacteria found on the stumps of amputees since bacteria are known to be the primary cause of the discomfort in form of itches and sores.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>Thirty participants were selected for this study, and were divided into two groups; 22 candidates were in the experimental group and four were in the control group, while six withdrew from the research. Members in both groups had their stump surfaces examined for the species of bacteria present at the time of prosthesis fitting. Members in the experimental group used the prostheses while those in the control group did not use the prostheses and both groups were re-examined three weeks later.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>The use of prostheses generally increased the mean number of species of bacteria found on the skin surface of stumps of amputees three weeks after starting to use the artificial limbs although the increase was not found to be statistically significant. No significant change was observed in the mean number of species of bacteria in the control group at the time of prosthetic fitting and after the three weeks of disuse. This implied that the observed increase in bacterial load was truly due to the use of prostheses in the experimental group.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p><em>Escherichia coli</em>,&nbsp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Clostridium tetani, and non-hemolytic streptococci&nbsp;</em>were identified on the skin surfaces of the stumps of amputees.</p> Sulaiman Kakooza, Kizito Muwonge Copyright (c) 2020 sulaiman Kakooza Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Larvicidal Potential of Crude Methanolic Leaf Extract of Azadirachta Indica On Mosquito Larvae <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Mosquitoes are pestiferous vectors responsible for the transmission of various dreadful diseases like malaria and yellow fever, causing millions of deaths every year. Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has resulted in the development of resistance by these organisms, resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Traditional Ugandan system of medicine mentions neem (<em>Azadirachta Indica</em>) to have many medicinal properties. The present study has assess the larvicidal ability of the aqueous extracts of ten medicinal plants against mosquito larvae.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Six third and fourth instar larvae, each were introduced into treatment trays containing 15 ml of their natural growth medium. To the treatment set, respective concentrations of the plant extracts (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 ml) were added from the stock solution; maintaining a relative concentration of the plant extract as 2, 4, 6, 8mg/ml respectively. A control was maintained, containing only larvae and natural growth medium. Mortality counts of larvae were monitored at regular intervals i.e. 6, 12, and 24Hours after treatment. Larvae were considered dead if they settle and remain motionless in the bottom of the test beaker with no response to light or mechanical stimulus or not recovering life functions even after being transferred to their growth medium.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;It was found that the crude methanolic neem leaf extract showed significant larvicidal effect at different concentrations, hence can be safely used as a potent larvicidal agent. LC50=3.02mg/ml LD90=33.11mg/ml. There are strong correlation between mortalities observed in larvae and extract concentration</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The leaf extract of <em>Azadirachta Indica</em> is highly toxic even at low doses this plant may eventually prove to be a useful larvicide. Further analysis is required to isolate the active principles and optimum dosages, responsible for larvicidal activity.&nbsp;</p> Timothy Chombo Copyright (c) 2020 Timothy Chombo Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Prevalence of HIV and Associated Risk Factors Among Infants Born to HIV Positive Mothers Attending Entebbe Regional Referral Hospital. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Uganda has an estimated 1.4 million people living with HIV with about 52,000 infections occurring every year. In 2018, 160,000 children were reported to have become infected with HIV. Globally, HIV exposed infants have delayed access to Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) of HIV, thus hampering efforts towards zero new infections. In Uganda, the prevalence of HIV among infants is not recorded, peak mortality for infants born with HIV occurs between 2 and 3 months of age. Vertical transmission of HIV from mother to child is the second commonest route of transmission of HIV in Uganda accounting for 18% of all new infections. This study assessed the prevalence of HIV and associated risk factors among infants born to HIV positive mothers attending Entebbe regional referral hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>a cross-sectional study was conducted at a paediatric ward and Mother-Child Health (MCH) General Department of Entebbe Regional Referral Hospital. The study included 78 HIV-exposed infants whose blood samples were collected and analyzed to know their HIV status and data about risk factors was also collected. Data were collected using questionnaires from mothers. Data were then entered into an Excel spreadsheet and analysed by SPSS Version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The prevalence of HIV infection among HIV exposed infants is 5.1%. Delay in child diagnosis, breastfeeding was the factors that increased the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in this study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Having such a significant figure greater than the proposed WHO recommendation of less than 5% new infections in infants in the era of the world’s pledge to eliminate MTCT of HIV is unbearable therefore, interventions need to be done to lower this prevalence</p> Keefa Wamala, Ronald Nuwamanya , Moses Muwanga Copyright (c) 2021 KEEFA WAMALA, Ronald Nuwamanya , Moses Muwanga ; David Serunjogi Sat, 06 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300