Student's Journal of Health Research Africa <p>Student’s Journal of Health Research Africa (SJHR-Africa) is an open-access journal that includes all branches of Medicine and health research to narrow the knowledge gap in Africa, (<strong>ISSN 2709-9997). </strong> The journal is peer-reviewed and promotes research on the African continent by accepting original research ideas from African students who are doing research.</p> <p>We are the journal for African students that believes in sharing information for free. Publishing in a total of 39 sections, SJHR-Africa is here to meet the needs of an African student. We believe that when we integrate Knowledge from different academic disciplines, Africa will be a complete ecosystem with adequate scholarly materials to bridge the knowledge gap.</p> <p>As the world becomes more integrated, our scope extends to biological sciences, Vocational studies that have an impact on health such as Agriculture. Informational technology, Environmental science, Business studies, and planning have also shown to influence Health. The journal brings together individual specialties from different fields into a dynamic academic mix. We intended to enhance communication among health system researchers and administrators, policy and decision-makers, legislators, practitioners, educators, students, and other types of professionals in the research that might have an effect on the healthcare delivery systems.</p> <p> </p> Student's Journal of Health Research en-US Student's Journal of Health Research Africa 2709-9997 Technology: Role in Maternal and Infant Mortality Ratios. Midwives and Nurses Perception in Cameroon-West Africa. A Cross-sectional Quantitative Survey. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Glocal efforts to curb the maternal/infant mortality ratio have not reached a satisfactory level with Sub-Saharan countries accounting for 86% (25400) of the global maternal death in 2017. However, technology has enhanced prompt management of preventable maternal/infant deaths via remote obstetric consultations/care along the whole continuum of pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal care. </p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong></p> <p>The survey aimed at assessing midwives' and nurses' perceptions on the role of tele-obstetrics in improving maternal/infant mortality in Africa and the significance of educational qualification and years of work experience on perception. </p> <p><strong>Methodology;</strong></p> <p>The survey employed quantitative and non-probability convenient sampling techniques to select 138 midwives and nurses. Data collection tool was used to collect data in two phases; phase-I as web-base (22nd-28th February 2021) and phase II, self-administered (1st-5th March 2021) using questionnaire then descriptive and inferential statistics were computed at 95% Confidence Interval on Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 and presented in the form of tables, pie charts, and bar charts. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The respondent rate was 86% (118/138), and at a mean score of 1.31(0.043)±0.466, 68.6% (81/118) of participants perceived tele-obstetrics vital to curb maternal/infant mortality. Among those with positive perception, 43.2%(35/81) [chi-2=6.3(33.3%)0.27] had a bachelor of science in midwifery/nursing. Within those with ≤5years of experience, 74.6%(47/63) [chi2=4.9(37.5%)0.17] supported technological application in midwifery care. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>Midwives and nurses recognize tele-obstetrics capable of improving maternal/infant health, and this recognition is not so different amongst the different cadre of Midwives/Nurses although those with few years of work experience support tele-obstetrics than those with many years of work experience. </p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>It is recommended for all United Nations member states to create a platform that encourages the implementation of tele-obstetric systems in all healthcare settings and midwifery curriculum as midwives and nurses will be willing to improve care via the use of technology.</p> <p> </p> Collins Pivadga Daniel Ekpah Copyright (c) 2022 Collins Pivadga, Daniel Ekpah 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 12 12 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.104 Drivers of Tracking Administration of Malaria Drugs in Health Units in Uganda. A Descriptive and Correlational Study. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">This study aimed at examining malaria intrinsic factors and technology controls as drivers of tracking administration malaria drugs focusing on the roles of both health workers and health units. </span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Methodology:</span></strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Descriptive and correlational research designs were employed upon 465 health workers from 564 health units in the central districts of Uganda for which purposive and randomization techniques were used. </span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Results: </span></strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">8.5% of health workers don’t test blood in hospitals, HC III and clinics majorly private facilities that have existed between 5-9 years, nurses noticeably base on just own experience to examination malaria patients. 11.8% don’t use slides to examine blood, health units that have existed as below as five years fall suit. Difficulty in electronic data exchange (26.7%), lack freedom to use electronic systems to access information on malaria drugs (41.9%), poor networks connectivity (60.0%) and poor response time (50.5%) are prominent. Perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and skills of use of ICTs affect tracking administration of malaria drugs. </span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Conclusion:</span></strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Parasites’ identification, quantification, and speciation concerns decrease from hospitals, clinics, HC III to IV in public health units that existed for 15 and below 5 years. Junior nurses with certificates and diplomas with work experience of 1-5 years mostly in general, pediatrics and “others” departments manage malaria issues with minimum guidance and supervision. Engagement of Rapid Diagnostic Test kits is higher in hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, HC III, and IV. </span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Recommendations:</span></strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">MoH should improve on planning, surveillance, and supervision of health facilities across to enforce diagnosis for malaria cases management and reduction drug resistance. Regulate a holistic and non-discriminative policy on diagnosis, treatment (drugs), and control of malaria and emphasized balanced, effective, and sustainable results. Gargets, training to handle malaria cases regardless of whether the facility is public or privately be prioritized for good tracking administration of malaria drugs.</span></p> E. James Kiggundu Ssegawa Twalib J. Nzanzu Kassim Ssekabira Winfred Arinaitwe Copyright (c) 2022 Ssegawa E James Kiggundu, Twalib Nzanzu J. , Kassim Ssekabira, Winfred Arinaitwe 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 12 12 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.100 Assessment of Planning Practices among Midwife Managers in Healthcare Facilities in Umuahia North Local Government Area. A Descriptive Quantitative Study. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The susceptibility to ill health increases daily as a result of social and economic crises. Women and children are mostly affected by an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. Midwife managers have major roles to play in providing high-quality care to these patients. Therefore, midwife managers have to engage in effective planning to be competent and effective. The study aims to assess the planning practices among midwife managers.</p> <p><strong>Methodology ;</strong></p> <p>A Descriptive quantitative design was used for the study. A systematic sampling technique was used to select 180 respondents from two hospitals. A semi-structured questionnaire of the Likert scale was used to elicit information from the respondents. Data were analyzed using a statistical package for social science and were presented in distribution and percentage tables.</p> <p><strong>Results :</strong></p> <p>It was discovered that the majority of the midwife managers were female, within the age bracket of 31-40years, and were in the antenatal ward. 35.56% of the midwife managers practiced strategic planning while contingency type of planning was least practiced (17.22%). 47.22% of the midwife managers had in-depth knowledge of planning practices and engage in the weekly plan. The researcher observed that the extent to which midwife managers engage in planning practices depends on how much they know about the concept.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion :</strong></p> <p>Midwife managers are essential stakeholders in providing evidence-based practice and so should engage in effective planning.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation :</strong></p> <p>It is recommended that midwife managers should be empowered to improve their planning practices through training, workshops, and mentorship.</p> Ogbonna-Adiele, Chituru Abigail Horsfall Copyright (c) 2022 Ogbonna-Adiele, Chituru , Abigail Horsfall 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.101 Perceived Informatics Competencies among Midwives: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>In most recent times, data innovation is a vital component of the medical care sector and allows healthcare authorities to possess primary technological expertise to control and use technology to provide care, as well as computer skills. Midwives are expected to provide quality and efficient care to their clients in this rapid advancement in ICT across the globe hence the need to build the knowledge and skills in the application of ICT. The survey sort to determine the informatics competencies among midwives in some randomly selected health care facilities in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>A quantitative-based cross-sectional study design was used for this inquiry. Using the quota sampling method, 300 respondents were recruited from six (6) randomly selected health facilities using the electronic data management system in their operations.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>It was also found out that the majority of the respondents have basic knowledge of computers and their application across the professional ranks totals mean and standard deviation of 4.2, 0.36. There was no significant relationship between informatics competencies across professional ranks and working experience in years of the midwives.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>It can be concluded that most of the midwives interviewed were in their youthful ages and started practicing with diplomas. We found out that the majority of the midwives have basic knowledge in computers and could apply this knowledge in the performance of basic tasks and also have a fair knowledge and skills in informatics as well. There was no relationship between knowledge and educational level and professional rank.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>It was, therefore, suggested that the curriculum for midwifery informatics be reviewed to include other advanced programs and periodic organization of training programs or workshops for practicing midwives.</p> Danso Kweku Owusu Daniel Ekpah Audu Robert Saforo Mensah Copyright (c) 2022 Danso Kweku Owusu, Ekpah Daniel Audu, Saforo Robert Mensah 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 16 16 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.91 Prevalence and Determinants of Intimate-Partner Violence among Pregnant Women Attending a City Health Centre IV, South western Uganda, during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a significant public health problem worldwide and its impact on newborn outcomes is largely documented. Although conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic have provided a perfect environment for IPV to thrive, the magnitude of IPV among pregnant women remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of IPV during the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women in south-western Uganda. </p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>This is a cross-sectional study of 345 pregnant women attending a large City Health Care facility consecutively enrolled. The validated WHO semi-structured women’s health and domestic violence questionnaire was used to identify women who had experienced IPV.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> </p> <p>Of the 345 pregnant women, 67.5% experienced some form of IPV. The categories of IPV experienced by pregnant women included: controlling behaviors 188(80.6%), psychological 127(54.5%), sexual 84(36.1%), economic 99(42.5%), and physical violence at 33(9.6%). The most important predictor of all types of IPV experience was marital conflicts experience. Specifically, the predictors of psychological IPV experience were marital conflicts experience and emotional support from relatives. The strongest predictor of controlling behaviors IPV experience was marital conflicts experience. The strongest predictors of sexual violence IPV experience were decision-making, marital conflicts experience, pregnant women aged ≥35, and communicating with the family of origin. The predictors of economic IPV experience were decision-making, marital conflicts experience, financial support from relatives, and marriage duration. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The IPV burden during the COVID-19 pandemic is widespread among pregnant women in south-western Uganda. Pregnant women reporting marital conflicts were more likely to experience IPV. These findings point to the need for integration of IPV screening in the routine ANC activities for every pregnant woman.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations </strong></p> <p>Health care providers need to identify and manage IPV as a health issue, not just as a societal matter if IPV is to be mitigated.</p> Eve Katushabe Anthonia Chinweuba Altraide Omieibi John Baptist Asiimwe Copyright (c) 2022 Eve Katushabe, John Baptist Asiimwe, Altraide Omieibi, Anthonia Chinweuba 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 17 17 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.92 Occupational Injuries and use of Personal Protective Equipment among Casual Municipal Solid Waste Workers in the Informal Sector in Kampala: A Cross-Sectional Study. <p><strong>Introduction: </strong></p> <p>The risk of occupational injuries in municipal solid waste workers in most low- and middle-income countries is increasing. This study sought to determine the use of PPE and its association with injuries among casual waste workers in a prototypical city.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>This was a cross-sectional study of casual waste workers at a large city landfill site in Kampala, Uganda. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain data on PPE use and occupational injuries within one year before the study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between PPE use and occupational injury.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The study was conducted between May 2020 and December 2020 and enrolled 81 participants, 44 (54%) of whom were male. Overall, 27 (33%) reported not using PPE, while 53 (65%) reported experiencing injuries. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the use of PPE was associated with lower odds of injury (odds ratio [OR] 0.09, 95% 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.01–0.57; P=0.011). In contrast, perceived risk was associated with a greater risk of injury (OR 34.95; 95% CI, 7.00, 174.56; P&lt;0.001). Prior training on PPE use (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 44.69; 95% CI 6.12–342.02; P=0.002), and older age (AOR 1.16; 95% CI 1.03–1.31; P=0.014), were associated with higher odds of PPE use. Additionally, waste pickers and sorters were more likely to use PPE than site traders.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong></p> <p>Among casual waste workers, there was suboptimal use of PPE and a high rate of occupational injuries. This study suggests that the non-use of PPE may be due to a lack of access and training.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>We recommend surveillance of injuries among workers in the waste management sector as well as regular training in routine and proper use of PPEs.</p> Dathan Mirembe Byonanebye Jackline Nankya Irene Arinaitwe Brian Bukenya Copyright (c) 2022 Mirembe, Jackline Nankya , Irene Arinaitwe , Brian Bukenya 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.98 Knowledge and Practices of Nursing Students towards total Pain Management in Terminally ill Patients in two Selected Nursing Institutions in Mbarara Municipality. A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study. <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>Pain is the physical, social, spiritual, and psychological discomfort in a human being. The vast majority of people globally claim to experience body pain 95% at some point in their lives.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p> A cross-sectional study was conducted using a quantitative approach. A total of one hundred forty-six (146) nursing students participated in the study and they were selected by a simple random sampling method</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>One hundred forty-six (146) nursing students were selected to participate in the study. The majority of subjects were aged between 18 to 29 years (89.8%) and there were more females (68.0%) and were pursuing certificate level of Ugandan education 62 (42.2%). The overall findings from the study show that majority of the nursing students had good to excellent knowledge (84.6%). The majority had used the observation method to determine patients‟ pain (93.9%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>The study highlighted good knowledge and practices towards the assessment of pain among nursing students.</p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong> </p> <p>The results of the study identified gaps in practices of nursing students in total pain management and thus we recommend that stakeholders for nursing training institutions should give more time to practical lessons under observation to be able to evaluate students and correct errors in practice to be able to train competent nurses.</p> Andrew Natwijuka John Baptist Asiimwe Copyright (c) 2022 Natwijuka Andrew , John Baptist Asiimwe 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.94 Using Action Research to Address Poor Waste Management at Kijjabwemi C/U Primary School in Kijjabwemi Suburb, Masaka City. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>This action research (AR) project was carried out at Kijjabwemi C/U Primary school at Kijjabwemi suburb of Kimaanya-Kabonera division of the newly formed Masaka City to identify, analyze, prioritize and identify solutions to address a health problem of priority at this setting using the locally accessible and available resources.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A participatory rural appraisal approach (PRA) guided how this research achieved its objectives right from the collection of information about the health challenges faced by this school. Data was collected using Focus group discussions, interviewing, and transect walk methods. Although the majority of data is qualitative, quantitative data is as well used especially where voting on an issue took place. At prioritization, a two-phase approach conceptualized by 1) multi-level voting techniques and 2) the Hanlon method of specifying criteria, PEARL testing, and Priority scoring was adopted to priorities the most urgent, serious, and feasible problem. The five Why/What for the root cause analysis was used to analyze the problem.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Out of the twelve health problems enlisted as urgent and serious by over 50% of stakeholders in the first phase, Poor waste management was identified as a major and priority problem caused by the excessive distance between generation and final disposal point, lack of designated collection points as well as containers, time and irregularity of disposal, shallow waste disposal pit and lack of well develop enforceable guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation:</strong></p> <p>Stakeholder-centered- learning about excellent waste management practices, utilizing transferable plastic bins of 40ml capacity, increasing the depth of the disposal pit as well as fencing it, and developing settings-oriented guidelines to increase vigilance for waste generation reduction, frequency of disposal, and burning of waste was implemented as interventions.</p> Fortunate Stella Bukirwa Denis Ssenyondwa Edrisa Muteesasira Caesar Bob Ssekyene Samuel Muwanguzi Moses Kabaalu George Muhunde Robert Orit Susan Nassolo Gerald Sseguya Olivia Namukwaya Maureen Andinda Copyright (c) 2021 Fortunate Stella, Denis Ssenyondwa , Edrisa Muteesasira , Caesar Bob Ssekyene , Samuel Muwanguzi , Moses Kabaalu , George Muhunde , Robert Orit , Susan Nassolo , Gerald Sseguya , Olivia Namukwaya, Maureen Andinda 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 26 26 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v2i12.70 The Factors that have led to increased HIV/AIDS Prevalence among Adolescents aged 13-21 Years in Hoima Regional Referral Hospital, Hoima District. A Cross-Sectional Study. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The study's broad objective was to determine the factors influencing the increasing prevalence of HIV/ AIDS among adolescents to suggest relevant and appropriate interventions that may be applied in the future in order to decrease the prevalence and combat HIV/ AIDS.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study was carried out at Hoima Regional Referral Hospital to determine the factors which have influenced HIV/AIDS prevalence among adolescents from 12<sup>th</sup> March 2013 to 18<sup>th</sup> March 2013. Data were collected from adolescents who attended OPD services and it involved interviewing the adolescents using a questionnaire by the researcher on the demographics, HIV-related knowledge, awareness, and attitudes on preventive measures and social factors that influence the increase in HIV prevalence. The data was analyzed manually using a scientific calculator and was compiled in form of tables, pie charts, and bar graphs</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Unplanned sex (35%), Beautiful partners (22%), the influence of partners (4%), presence of AVRs(10%), and Fear to buy condoms(29%), were the factor that has led to the increased HIV/AIDS amongst adolescents. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>The involvement of other sectors of a community like local councils, learning institutions, churches, civil society organizations, and NGOs will do a long way in promoting effective knowledge to the adolescents about HIV preventive measures.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>The government through the ministry of health should continue to sensitize adolescents through health education about ABC strategies and safe male circumcision importance in an effort to combat HIV new infections.</p> Caleb Kusilika Copyright (c) 2021 Caleb Kusilika 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 14 14 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v2i12.58 Knowledge of Diabetes Mellitus among Students of a Public Secondary School in Southern Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study. <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Background</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a condition that arises due to high levels of glucose in the blood because of a defect in insulin production or usage. The report shows an increasing prevalence of prediabetes and DM among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria. Compounding the problem is the reported low level of DM understanding among students in secondary schools in Delta State. This study investigated the knowledge of DM among students of Ogbe Secondary School Effurun, Delta State Nigeria.</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology</span></span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><span style="color: #0e101a;">This was a school-based descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among 400 randomly selected students from junior secondary school one to senior secondary school two. A structured questionnaire comprising of two sections was used to collect the data. The collected data was analyzed and presented in frequency tables and charts while the Chi-Square test was used to analyze socio-demographic variables and knowledge of DM at a P&lt;0.05 level of significance.</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Results </span></span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The mean age was 14.68±1.99 years and 260(65.0%) were females. A good number of the respondents 352(88.0%) have heard of DM. About one-third of the respondents, 120(33.0%) do not know what is DM while most 641(90.9%) could not mention any type of DM. Besides, the majority of the respondents do not know the causes of DM 324(45.5%), signs and symptoms of DM 403(55.7%), risk factors of DM 582(81.3%), and complications of poorly managed DM 603(85.2%). The overall knowledge of DM was 3.4%. Bivariate analysis shows a significant association between the class of the respondents and their knowledge of DM.</span></span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion and Recommendation</span></span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span data-preserver-spaces="true"><span style="color: #0e101a;">In conclusion, while the majority of the respondents have heard of diabetes mellitus, the majority demonstrated a poor understanding of DM. Therefore, the study recommends regular and continuous awareness creation of diabetes mellitus in secondary schools in Delta State and Nigeria.</span></span></p> Otovwe Agofure HonourGod Oghenerume Copyright (c) 2022 Otovwe Agofure, HonourGod Oghenerume 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 11 11 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.108 Knowledge and Practices of Self-Care among People with Diabetes in South Western Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study at a Regional Referral Hospital in Mbarara City. <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Background: </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease with increasing prevalence globally. Glycemic control is the ultimate management goal possible through self-care activities predominantly patient-driven and enhanced by one’s knowledge. These consequently minimize associated adverse complications hence maintaining the quality of life among people with diabetes. Self-care knowledge and practice are globally found unsatisfying to control glycemia among many diabetic populations. There is a critical need to assess current knowledge and practice regarding self-care among diabetic people to control their diabetes. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Methods: </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on 228 participants who were living with diabetes for at least six months since diagnosis. A standard tool, adopted and modified to suit the setting was used; the self-report Diabetic Knowledge Test Questionnaire for self-care knowledge and a revised version of the Summary Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire for practice. Both descriptive and logistic analysis was done using Stata software, version 13.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Results: </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Adequate diabetes self-care knowledge was average (56%) and adequate self-care practice was below average (35%). Major gaps in foot care, blood glucose testing, hypoglycemia recognition, and management. Multiple logistic regression revealed longer duration with diabetes and more frequency of receiving health education highly associated with adequate self-care knowledge and practice (duration ≥ 11 years, AOR: 2.9; P=0.014) and health education on every clinic visit<strong> </strong>(AOR: 4.0; P=0.005) for<strong> </strong>self-care knowledge while duration ≥ 6 years (AOR=3.3, P-value = 0.011) and health education twice from the time they started clinic visits (AOR= 0.2, P= 0.048) for self-care practice. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion:</span></strong><span style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Interventions should be developed focusing on precise and user-friendly health education packages translated to local languages, and eye-catching to the audience, priority to newly diagnosed and less educated. A further study assessing appropriate health education delivery avenues to clients of various characteristics, especially rural communities.</span></p> Gladys Nakidde Ronald Kamoga Eve Katushabe Rachel Luwaga Mercy. M Mwanja Copyright (c) 2022 Gladys Nakidde, Ronald Kamoga, Eve Katushabe, Rachel Luwaga, Mercy. M Mwanja 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 14 14 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.106 An Experimental Study Determining Levels of Lead Contamination of Dioscorea Spp. (Yams) From Selected Regions of Kampala Capital City, Uganda. <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>Heavy metal toxicity is a growing concern and often an unknown root cause of a number of serious health issues. Due to bio-accumulation, heavy metals are passed up the food chain from plants to humans. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of lead in yams from selected swamps and upland gardens, to compare lead contamination in yams from swamps to those from upland gardens, and compare the levels of lead in yams from swamps and upland gardens to the FAO/WHO acceptable limits.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:</p> <p>Ready to eat/mature yams were harvested from swamps and upland gardens respectively and their lead content was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p><strong>Y</strong>ams collected from RS, a swamp site had the lowest amount of lead at a mean lead level of 1.110 mg/kg. Yams collected from KCU which was an upland garden had the highest amount of lead with a mean lead concentration of 2.324mg/kg. Yams obtained from upland gardens contained a higher concentration of lead at a mean lead concentration of 1.7858 mg/kg compared to a mean lead concentration of 1.6172 mg/kg which was found in yams collected from the swamp sites. However, there was no statistically significant difference in lead contamination of the yams obtained from either site. The concentration of lead in both yams collected from swamps and those obtained from upland gardens was higher than the FAO/WHO acceptable limit of lead in food.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>The level of lead contamination in yams is not dependent on the agricultural site where they are grown. Concomitantly, lead levels in yams regardless of their site of growth, were above the FAO/WHO maximum acceptable limits of lead in food and thus suggested that yams pose a significant route of human exposure to lead once they are consumed.</p> Joseph Tumwine Halima Bushirah Nassanga John Kateregga Gabriel Tumwine Joshua Kitimbo Copyright (c) 2022 Joseph Tumwine, Halima Bushirah Nassanga , John Kateregga, Gabriel Tumwine, Joshua Kitimbo 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 9 9 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.99 An Experimental Study to Determine the Antibacterial Activity of Selected Petroleum Jellies against Selected Bacteria that cause Skin Infections. <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>The skin is the largest organ of the body and forms its first line of defense against pathogens. When the integrity of this natural protective barrier is compromised, it’s an opportune moment for pathogenic microorganisms such as <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes</em> among others to invade the body causing skin infections such as folliculitis, acne, impetigo among others.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>:</p> <p>This study aimed at determining the phytochemical profile of the selected petroleum jellies, determining the antibacterial activity of different petroleum jellies on selected bacteria causing skin infections, comparing the antibacterial activity of the jellies to that of the commonly used drugs against skin infections, and determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the jellies exhibiting antibacterial activity.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:</p> <p>The antibacterial activity of the jellies was determined by the agar well diffusion method (AWD) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth dilution method.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:</p> <p>Only herbal jellies exhibited antibacterial activity against at most two of the three bacterial species studied. The MIC values for the herbal jellies ranged from 47 mg/ml to 188 mg/ml.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>The non-herbal petroleum jellies did not show antibacterial activity while that of herbal jellies was minimal with very low potency and thus should not be relied on for wound healing or curing skin infections.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>The antibacterial activity of jellies should be tracked diligently to detect and address antimicrobial resistance as it arises to ensure that they remain efficacious.</p> Joseph Tumwine Joshua Kitimbo Lameka Buyinza Seguya Yiga John Kateregga Agnes Turyamubona Gerald Mboowa Copyright (c) 2022 Joseph Tumwine , Joshua Kitimbo , Lameka Buyinza Seguya Yiga, John Kateregga , Agnes Turyamubona , Gerald Mboowa 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 12 12 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.95 A Cross-Sectional Study to Determine Urinary Tract Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns among Pregnant Women attending Antenatal Clinic at Kawempe National Referral Hospital, Uganda. <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a disease of the urinary system. This type of infection involves urethritis, pyro nephritis, or cystitis. Symptoms can be pelvic pain, increased urge to urinate, pain on passing out urine, and blood in the urine (blander infections). A kidney UTI may cause back pain, nausea vomiting, and fever.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p>This study was a cross-sectional-quantitative study carried out among 300 pregnant mothers attending ANC at Kawempe regional referral hospital in August 2021. Questionnaires were administered to get the biodata of Participants. Urine samples were collected using sterile containers. Urine culture was performed, urine chemistry using ten parameter strip then urine microscopy was done. Chemistry was done using ten parameter strips, urine microscopy and then later culture and sensitivity was done on urine samples with proteinuria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Urine samples with proteinuria were 5.7 % (n=17), more than half of the Urine Samples 52%( n=156) had positive White blood cell cells and 48 %( n=144) had no abnormality detected.</p> <p>Culture on urine samples showed the following isolation, <em>Escherichia</em>.<em>coli</em> 24.3 %( n=9), Klebsiella <em>pneumonia </em>21.6 %( n=8), <em>Pseudomonas</em> <em>euroginosa</em> 18.9 %( n=7) Staphylococcus aureus 16.22 %(n=6) <em>Enterococcus spp</em> 2.7%(n=1) and <em>Candida</em> <em>albicans</em>16.2 %( n=6).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>UTI is an infection of some part of your body’s urinary system which may include: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Organisms causing UTIs in pregnancy are the same uropathogens that commonly cause UTI in non-pregnant patients with Escherichia coli being the most commonly isolated organism. Other bacteria include <em>klebishella pneumoniae, staphulococuus, streptococcus, enterococcus</em>, and <em>pseudomonas</em>.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Kawempe National Referral Hospital. Should improve the Laboratory to perform microbiology tests.</p> Anthony Mugisha Samuel Mujuzi Andrew Akampurira Copyright (c) 2022 Anthony Mugisha, Samuel Mujuzi, Andrew Akampurira 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.107 Perceptions and Attitudes of the Local Community towards Urban Refugees Living in Mbarara City, Southwestern Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study. <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">There is an increasing number of refugees choosing to live in urban centers even when this makes them forego humanitarian assistance such as shelter and food from the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) and host governments. Refugees in urban centers have to fend for themselves. This situation sometimes makes them ‘lock horns’ with the local communities. We examined the perception of the local community towards urban refugees in Mbarara city southwestern Uganda. </span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Methods: </span></strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">We conducted 6 Focus Group Discussions composed of local leaders of the villages where refugees live. We also conducted 4 Key Informants Interviews with the Refugee Desk Officer (Office of The Prime Minister), the Officer in Charge of Mbarara Police Station, the Mayor Mbarara city, and the Resident City Commissioner. All participants were purposively selected due to their knowledge about the study topic. They were interviewed about their perceptions towards refugees in Mbarara city. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed.</span><span data-preserver-spaces="true"> </span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Results: </span></strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Three themes emerged from the data: 1) Economic perceptions (employment competition, competition for land, basic needs scarcity, skilled labor, and economic favoritism) 2) Political perceptions (corruption, involvement in local politics, and security threat) 3) Sociocultural perceptions (religiosity, cultural acculturation, social inclusion, stigma, and sexual immorality) of society towards urban refugees. </span></p> <p><strong><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Conclusions: </span></strong></p> <p><span data-preserver-spaces="true">The community views refugees as people who are given preferential treatment by the government, civil society organizations, and the international community. </span></p> <p><strong>Recommendation:</strong></p> <p>Integration interventions are designed to ensure peaceful and cordial coexistence between the host community and refugees for sustainable development. </p> Ronald Bahati Godfrey Zari Rukundo Cathy Denise Sigmund Herbert Elvis Ainamani Scholastic Ashaba Copyright (c) 2022 Ronald Bahati, Godfrey Zari Rukundo, Cathy Denise Sigmund, Herbert Elvis Ainamani, Scholastic Ashaba 2022-03-30 2022-03-30 3 3 10 10 10.51168/sjhrafrica.v3i3.93