Student's Journal of Health Research Africa 2021-12-24T00:10:15+03:00 Editorial Office Open Journal Systems <p>Student’s Journal of Health Research Africa (SJHR-Africa) is an open-access journal that includes all branches of Medicine and health research to narrow the knowledge gap in Africa, (<strong>ISSN 2709-9997). </strong> The journal is peer-reviewed and promotes research on the African continent by accepting original research ideas from African students who are doing research.</p> <p>We are the journal for African students that believes in sharing information for free. Publishing in a total of 39 sections, SJHR-Africa is here to meet the needs of an African student. We believe that when we integrate Knowledge from different academic disciplines, Africa will be a complete ecosystem with adequate scholarly materials to bridge the knowledge gap.</p> <p>As the world becomes more integrated, our scope extends to biological sciences, Vocational studies that have an impact on health such as Agriculture. Informational technology, Environmental science, Business studies, and planning have also shown to influence Health. The journal brings together individual specialties from different fields into a dynamic academic mix. We intended to enhance communication among health system researchers and administrators, policy and decision-makers, legislators, practitioners, educators, students, and other types of professionals in the research that might have an effect on the healthcare delivery systems.</p> <p> </p> Occurrence of Escherichia Coli in Packaged Drinking Water Distributed in Katabi Sub County Uganda. A Cross Sectional Study. 2021-02-11T10:48:49+03:00 Marion Byonanebye Emmanuel Kizza David Serunjogi <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The world health organization (WHO) estimates that about a 1.1billion people drink unsafe water globally, and over 1.7 million deaths occur annually due to the consumption of water that is of faecal origin. Water in sachets is readily available and affordable but there is no concern about its safety. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of <em>Escherichia coli</em> in packaged drinking water distributed in the Katabi sub country using the membrane filtration technique, isolation of organisms, and subjecting them to biochemical tests. The study was conducted in 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study design was used where Rwenzori, Riham water, Nevana, Highland, Blue wave, and sachet water were purposively selected in the main trading center within the Wakiso district. A total of 5 bottled water and 10 sachets of water were used. Duplicate sample (2) bottles of water from each were used. Therefore 30 samples of packaged water were used in this study. The bacteria were grown on media and confirmed using biochemical tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>Sachet water contained pink lactose fermenting colonies on MacConkey culture media. Bottled water had no growth. The pink colonies were positive with Kligler iron agar (KIA), triple sugar iron agar (TSI), and sulphur and indole motility (SIM) positive. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation </strong></p> <p>The majority of sachet water was contaminated with <em>Escherichia coli</em> an indicator of faecal contamination; and therefore, unsuitable for human consumption. The government of Uganda should carry out surveillance activities to enforce strict hygienic measures on sachet water producers and distributors. </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marion Byonanebye, Emmanuel Kizza , David Serunjogi Relevance Of Medical Records Management Of Health Care Services Delivery. Case Study Of Jinja Referral Hospital Jinja Municipality. 2021-12-10T05:53:49+03:00 Boniface Adriko Fredrick Wandara <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>The study sought to investigate the relevance of medical records management on healthcare service delivery in Jinja referral hospital Jinja municipality. The objectives of the study were to describe the present records management practices in Jinja Referral Hospital; find out the existing infrastructure for the management of patient medical records at the Jinja Referral Hospital; determine the compliance of patient medical records management in Jinja Referral Hospital with the relevant national legislative and regulatory framework; find out the security of patient medical records at the Jinja Referral Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>Quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed, the sample was drawn from the service providers and from the healthcare service users. Questionnaires, interviews, and observation were used to collect data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The findings showed that Jinja Referral Hospital uses manual records management system in the creation, maintenance, and usage of records. In findings, there were challenges related to misfiling and missing patient folders which sometimes lead to the creation of new patient folders. Also, the study discovered that the time spent in the retrieval of patient folders could negatively affect the timely delivery of healthcare services.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The creation, maintenance, use, and disposal of medical records at the jinja referral hospital are currently effective under control. This is supported by the fact that there is a consistent system of creating records, classification, and retrieval.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations</strong></p> <p>The study recommended the adoption of electronic records management system as most public healthcare institutions in the country are rapidly shifting to electronic management systems. The use of electronic records management system is believed to be efficiently and effectively promote easy accessibility, retrieval of patient medical records, and allow easy communication amongst the healthcare service institutions and healthcare practitioners.</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Boniface Adriko, Fredrick Wandara Effectiveness of The Rural Community Health Practice Carried Out In Nabweru Sub-County, Wakiso District. 2021-10-25T11:18:04+03:00 Shafic Kiberu Sulaiman Mahmood Kakooza <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The field report was about the effectiveness of the rural community health practice to prove whether it's viable to the people in the community. The Objectives of the study were to gain more practical experience in the field, to acquire more knowledge in environmental health, to put theoretical knowledge into practice, and to enable the community to practice proper sanitation and hygiene. The field study was carried out in approximately two months from 16th|/July/2014 to 5th/September/2014.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>I reported at the organization on 17th July 2014 and was received by the District Health Inspector who later introduced him to the office public department. </p> <p>I received orientation in the office of the District Health Inspector for about a week and then later was sent to the sub-county for the rest of the period. I was assigned to the public health department of the Nabweru sub-country in the Wakiso district</p> <p><strong>Results and observations</strong></p> <p>The Organizational Structure of the Nabweru sub-country was fully understood. I learned better ways of how to deal with the community in many aspects. Skills gained Included Communication and Immunization. Problems encountered included those from the organization, the workers, and trainees. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion and recommendation</strong></p> <p>The rural community practice was important as it helped to relate what was taught in class to the practical aspect. Therefore I acknowledge the role played by the staff of Nabweru Sub-County and the community at large. The sub-county in conjunction with the district should budget for sensitization outreaches in the community.</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shafic Kiberu, Kakooza Sulaiman Mahmood Credit Management Practices, Loan Repayment Management and Profitability Of Commercial Banks’ Branches In Uganda. 2021-10-02T16:17:16+03:00 Anthony Elemu <p><strong>Background:</strong></p> <p>The study examined the relationship between credit management practices, loan repayment management, and profitability of commercial banks branches in Uganda. The objectives included; establishing the relationship between credit management practices and profitability; the relationship between loan repayment management and profitability; mediating the effect of loan repayment management on credit management practices and profitability, and examining the impact of credit management practices and loan repayment management on profitability.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>The study was cross-sectional research and applied a quantitative approach. A sample of 234 commercial bank branches was used from a total of 573. The study obtained responses from 166 branches. Primary data was obtained from a branch manager and credit supervisor using a structured questionnaire. Validity of the questionnaire was obtained using CVI and reliability using Cronbach Alpha Coefficient. Data were analyzed using SPSS v.20 to obtain descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression analyses to present results. A Med-graph was used to test the mediation of loan repayment management.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>This study ascertained a positive relationship between credit management practices and profitability; and a positive relationship between loan repayment management and profitability. The study further ascertained a partial mediation of loan repayment management in the relationship between credit management practices and profitability. Furthermore, the study revealed that jointly credit management practices and loan repayment management predict the profitability of commercial bank branches. This study ascertained a positive relationship between credit management practices and profitability; and a positive relationship between loan repayment management and profitability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The study concludes that credit management practices and loan repayment management are among the critical factors influencing profitability at the commercial bank branch level.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>The study recommends commercial bank branches carry out continuous loan monitoring and control; loan appraisal; and proper documentation.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anthony Elemu Prevalence and Factors Associated With Utilization of HIV Self Testing Among Students of Universities in South Western Uganda. 2021-10-02T05:07:37+03:00 Marvice Namande Jane Kabami Dickson Agaba Allion Asiimire Andrew Natwijuka Irene Kebeyi Robert Mugumya Florence Beinempaka Allan Muhumuza <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>HIV self-testing (HIVST) is globally accepted as an important complement to existing HIV Counseling and Testing approaches. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of HIV self-testing among university students of Southwestern Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>An online cross-sectional study design that used the quantitative approach was conducted purposively among 356 university students of Kampala International University (KIU) and Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) in Southwestern Uganda between 12<sup>th</sup> August 2020 and 31<sup>st</sup> August 2020. Mapping different course leaders in launching the Google form link that contained the structured questionnaires in their respective formal class WhatsApp groups for enrolling potential participants. Descriptive analysis of numeric data was summarized in means with standard deviations and presented using tables. Descriptive analysis of categorical data was summarized in frequencies, proportions and presented using tables. Association between independent and dependent variables was assessed using the Chi-square test (X<sup>2</sup>) for bivariate analysis in SPSS IBM version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Of the 356 participants, the study had 57.3% of the participants from KIU and 42.7% were from MUST. The study found that university students who had ever self-tested were 43.2%. Socio-demographic variables associated with utilization of HIV self-testing were the student’s year of study (<em>p </em>= 0.007), having a sexual partner (<em>p </em>= 0.012), and place of residence (<em>p </em>= 0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>The study demonstrates low levels of utilization of HIV self-testing among University students in association with a number of factors that include how they are aware of HIV self-testing, places of their residence, having a sexual partner.</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marvice Namande, Jane Kabami, Dickson Agaba, Allion Asiimire, Andrew Natwijuka, Irene Kebeyi, Robert Mugumya, Florence Beinempaka, Allan Muhumuza Challenges Faced By Girl Child Aged Between 9-18 Years In Menstrual Hygiene In Schools. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ogur Sub-County, Lira District Uganda. 2021-11-29T22:16:16+03:00 Franco Aluma Ambrose Ongom <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Background: </span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Menstruation is a naturally occurring physiological phenomenon in adolescent girls and pre-menopausal women. menstrual hygiene management ( MHM) is the practice that involves women and adolescent girls using clean menstrual management materials to absorb or collect blood that can be changed in privacy as often as necessary for the duration of the menstruation period, using soap and water for washing the body as required and access to the facilities off used menstrual management materials.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Method:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The research study employed quantitative and simple random sampling techniques from various strata and was carried out for one week from 17th November 2020 to 24th November 2020. A total of 30 pupils were selected, Data was collected on a data collection tool and information was presented using descriptive statics in form of tables, pie charts, and graphs.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Results:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The overall results showed in the age group between 14-16 years which had 10(52.6%) the least which had 1(5.2%), of the girls who faced challenges in menstrual hygiene management during school period.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The high percentage of girls who faced challenges in menstrual hygiene management in school was due unavailability of menstrual hygiene facilities in Ogur primary school and the lack of continuous menstrual health education among girls.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Recommendation:</span></strong></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">There is a need for menstrual health education among girl children, and provision of required menstrual hygiene facilities at school, public awareness on health-seeking behaviors and hygiene to reduce infections on girl children during their menstruation period. I also recommend further studies to be done in this area to evaluate the current challenges of poor menstrual hygiene among girl children in school.</span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span style="color: #0e101a;"> </span></p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Franco Aluma, Ambrose Ongom Factors That Affect Solid Waste Management in Adjumani Town Council Adjumani District. 2021-12-12T18:23:15+03:00 Franco Aluma Innocent Justine Amani <p><strong>Background: </strong></p> <p>The study was carried out at the Adjumani town council located in the Adjumani district. The researcher sought to determine factors affecting solid waste management in Adjumani Town Council. The study objectives were to identify the types of solid waste management, the methods of solid waste management, and to identify the challenges faced by solid waste management.</p> <p><strong> Methodology: </strong></p> <p>The study involved descriptive cross-sectional employing qualitative data collection using methods of simple random sampling with a sample size of 10 respondents, the study population included public health workers handling solid wastes with the help of questionnaires, oral interview and observation were the major data collection tools basing on both dependent and independent study variables. The data was analyzed and presented in tables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>70% were males and 30% were females. The majority of the services related to waste management were rated 60% good and 20% fair, 10% very good and 10% bad while none were got a rating of excellent. The poor roads to the final disposal site, mechanical problems with the lorry, accumulated heaps of garbage, and lack of fences were among the problems associated with transportation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>The study thus concluded that through the capacity of government in liaison with administrators, the public health department should put more effort into continuing education to enable the staff to improve their skills at the work that is, by training, teaching, and well sensitizing all health workers and the public in the community and become aware of solid waste management and this will help to eliminate /reduce the factors affecting solid waste management in Adjumani Town Council while aiming at higher results with good performance at the workplace.</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Franco Aluma, Innocent Justine Amani Factors Influencing The Performance Of Village Health Teams (VHTS) In Health Promotion. A Cross-Sectional Study Of Namuyoga Town Council Tororo District. 2021-11-29T22:25:35+03:00 Franco Aluma Arnold Bbee Manyara <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Background:</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The study focused on examining the various factors, directly and indirectly, that influence the performance of VHT activities. The study was based on the scientific fact that incentives, availability, and support supervisions have a significant impact on the quality of health services offered by VHTS The study was conducted in Nabuyoga Town Council in Eastern Uganda.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Methodology:</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">The researcher adopted cross-sectional descriptive methods; the researcher employed a questionnaire with both ended and closed-ended questionnaires to gather data. Also, the researcher acquired an interview guide to gathering qualitative data.<strong> </strong></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Results</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Substantively the study has revealed positive results, that incentives influence the performance of VHTS in terms of motivation and retention. Secondary the study has shown that lack of sufficient supplies has negatively affected the performance of service delivery in terms of availability and accessibility. Thirdly, the study has revealed there is a dire need to adopt an effective supervisory mechanism for technical development and the sustainability of VHT activities in the area. </span></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><strong><span style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion and recommendations:</span></strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 12.0pt 0cm .0001pt 0cm;"><span style="color: #0e101a;">Quality services delivery by VHTS in health promotion, there is a great need to improve on the availability of incentives, supplies, and support supervision; it is only by sincere involvement of community members that health quality in the area can be realized. </span></p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Franco Aluma An Assessment Of The Performance Of The Different Types Of Biomass (Agricultural) Waste When Used As Fuels In A Gasifier Stove. 2021-11-10T20:48:02+03:00 Benedictor Waniala Florence Nassimbwa <p><strong>Introduction: </strong></p> <p>The world is experiencing adverse climatic changes due to the high demand for biomass energy with an increasing population. Many forests are being cut down to meet the biomass energy demand. A lot of research to identify alternative fuels especially from agricultural waste is being tried. Pinewood, pine cones, maize cobs, and wood shavings are among the fuels that are regarded as a waste but can be used in a gasifier stove as alternative fuels amidst the depleting forests. </p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong> </p> <p>The study was conducted from the Biomass Resource and Training Center of Nyabyeya Forestry College located in Masindi near Budongo Forest, Uganda. From the results, Wood shavings had the lowest specific fuel consumption of 90g/liter as compared to pine wood with 101g/liter, maize cobs with 103g/liter, and pine cones with the highest of 107g/liter. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> </p> <p>maize cobs were found to be a better alternative fuel for the gasifier stove use, this is because their time to boil 2.5 liters of water is about 12 minutes, the burning rate is 20g/min, the specific fuel consumption was about 104g/liter and had the best thermal efficiency of about 33% with the specific gasifier stove.</p> <p><strong> Recommendation</strong>:</p> <p>Maize cobs are recommended for use in the gasifier stoves, apart from the scientific evidence, maize cobs have other benefits associated with their wide availability and cheap or no cost since they exist as agricultural wastes, this would help in reducing the pressure on forests for wood fuels like charcoal and firewood.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>Pine cones had the lowest time to boil of 9.5 minutes compared to maize cobs with 12.25 minutes and pinewood with the highest which was 13.25 minutes.</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Benedictor Waniala, Florence Nassimbwa Perineal Management: Confidence And Educational Needs Among Midwives In Selected Health Facilities In Mityana District, Uganda. A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study. 2021-10-10T21:38:29+03:00 Jackline Nakimuli Ihudiebube-Splendor Chichaodili N <p><strong>Background</strong>:</p> <p>Midwives are principal professionals providing woman-centered continuity of care for childbearing women worldwide. Perhaps there are inadequate pieces of evidence to infer whether there are differences in illness and deaths, usefulness, and psychosocial results between models of care that are midwife-led and other care models.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>A descriptive cross-sectional study was used where a Self-administered and semi-structured questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions was used to collect data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The level of confidence in perineal management and managing vaginal deliveries is directly influenced by the level of education attained by the midwife. From the study findings, midwives who had attained a degree in midwifery expressed more confidence in perineal management and vaginal deliveries than those with a diploma and certificate in midwifery. Study findings also showed that midwives with the least time of exposure (work experience, those with fewer than a year of working experience expressed low levels of confidence towards perineal management and vaginal deliveries.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong></p> <p>The findings from this study demonstrate= that midwives crave additional educational opportunities in perineal management, especially, in prevention strategies. They demanded up-to-date evidence and best practice recommendations to provide guidance to midwifery perineal management. This shows that the midwives’ were enthusiastic about the continuous evaluation of their practices and commitments to life-long learning. It is therefore anticipated that midwives tailored educational program that will not only improve clinical skills and perineal protection techniques but also confidence in decision making be established to meet midwifery needs</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Midwives should embark on ‘back to basics approach, they should continuously review Anatomy and physiology, including the perineum and pelvic floor and mechanism of labor. This paucity of knowledge may be a consequence of the previously limited focus on the anatomy of the perineum in earlier pre-registration midwifery curricula and existing perineal management workshops.</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jackline Nakimuli, Ihudiebube-Splendor Chichaodili N Peer Influence And Teenage Pregnancy Among Adolescents In Secondary Schools. A Case Study of Mbarara Municipality, Uganda. 2021-10-12T18:42:05+03:00 Patricia Mary Kukundakwe <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> </p> <p>Peer influence is said to be stronger during adolescence and teenage pregnancy is on the rise in secondary school teenagers</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>The research questions were answered through self-administered questionnaires, focused group discussions, and interviews. The population was 200 respondents and the sample size was 132 including; 105 teenagers, 15 teachers, and 12 parents. The samples were randomly, conveniently, and purposively selected from randomly identified 5 secondary schools. The study adopted a cross-sectional design and focused on 5 selected schools in Mbarara Municipality. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and content analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The findings of the study demonstrated that negative peer interactions, the timing of sexual intercourse, and unhealthy teen friendships increase the likelihood of teenage pregnancy while positive peer interactions, delayed sexual intercourse and healthy teen friendships decrease teenage pregnancy. The study thus concludes that peer influence impacts teenage pregnancy rates among teenagers.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>Teenagers monitor and evaluate the suggestions and pieces of advice received from their peers, as well as utilize good peers for positive support; and that teachers, parents, counselors, social workers, and all who work with adolescents, understand and contextualize adolescents’ needs and behavior and guide them adequately to benefit from their developmental stage</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> </p> <p>The study examined sexual intercourse among teenagers and the results included sexual history (62.9%), exposure (81%), behavior (92.4%) attitude and beliefs (55.2%), and perception (84.8%).</p> 2021-12-24T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Patricia Mary Kukundakwe